Deep Learning based Cryptanalysis of Stream Ciphers
Conventional cryptanalysis techniques necessitate an extensive analysis of non-linear functions defining the relationship of plain data, key, and corresponding cipher data. These functions have very high degree terms and make cryptanalysis work extremely difficult. The advent of deep learning algorithms along with the better and efficient computing resources has brought new opportunities to analyze cipher data in its raw form. The basic principle of designing a cipher is to introduce randomness into it, which means the absence of any patterns in cipher data. Due to this fact, the analysis of cipher data in its raw form becomes essential. Deep learning algorithms are different from conventional machine learning algorithms as the former directly work on raw data without any formal requirement of feature selection or feature extraction steps. With these facts and the assumption of the suitability of employing deep learning algorithms for cipher data, authors introduced a deep learning based method for finding biases in stream ciphers in the black-box analysis model. The proposed method has the objective to predict the occurrence of an output bit/byte at a specific location in the stream cipher generated keystream. The authors validate their method on stream cipher RC4 and its improved variant RC4A and discuss the results in detail. Further, the authors apply the method on two more stream ciphers namely Trivium and TRIAD. The proposed method can find bias in RC4 and shows the absence of this bias in its improved variant and other two ciphers. Focusing on RC4, the authors present a comparative analysis with some existing methods in terms of approach and observations and showed that their process is more straightforward and less complicated than the existing ones.
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