Ultrasonic Assessment of Bullet Inflicted Damage in Aramid Laminated Composites
Immersion type ultrasonic C-scan has been performed on Twaron-epoxy (T-E) and Twaron-polypropylene (T-PP) composite laminates impacted by 7.62 mm armor piercing (AP) projectile with different striking velocitiesto assess the bullet inflicted damage area. Square zones of size 72 mm by 72 mm around each impact area are subjected ultrasonic C-scan in pulse echo mode. Ultrasonic features are extracted and processed to estimate the damage area in the laminates due to each impact. The variation in internal damage area is correlated with ballistic properties of composite laminates. It is observed that in the similar range of impact velocity, the damage area is invariably higher in composites made from thermoplastic polypropylene (PP) resin compared to the thermoset epoxy resin. The internal damage area of impacted panel is found to decrease with increase in impact velocity for both the types of resin matrix which corroborated the trend in experimental ballistic curve. The internal damage area, however, increases substantially when shot lodging takes place inside the laminate below ballistic limit or upon excessive yawing.
Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(1), pp.153-158, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.1467
Henneke EG II. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of advanced composites. In Non-destructive Testing of Fibre-reinforced Plastics Composites, edited by John Summerscales, 1990, 2, 55-159.
Jones, T.S. Inspection of composites using the automated ultrasonic scanning system (AUSS). Materials Evaluation,1985, 43(6), 746-53.
Preuss T.E. & Clark, G. Use of time-of-flight C-scanning for assessment of impact damage. Composites, 1988, 19(2), 145-48.
Abrate, S. Impact on laminated composite materials. Transactions of the ASME. Appl. Mech. Rev., 1991, 44(4), 155-90.
Abrate, S. Impact on laminated composites: recent advances. Transactions of the ASME. Appl. Mech. Rev., 1994, 47(11), 517-43.
Hosur M.V.; Murthy, C.R.L.; Ramamurthy, T.S. & Shet A. Estimation of impact induced damage in CFRP laminates through ultrasonic imaging. NDT&E International, 1998, 31(5), 359-74.
Datta, D.; Samanta, S. & Maity, P. Automated imaging of composite specimens, J. Non destructive Test. Eval., 2004, 3(3), 21-27.
Hazell, P.J.; Cowie, A.; Stennett, C. & Cooper, G. A. Penetration of a woven CRPF laminate by a high velocity steel sphere impacting at velocities of up to 1875m/s. Int. J. Impact Engg., 2009, 36(9), 1136-142.
Nayak, N.; Sivaraman, P.; Banerjee A.; Dutta, A.L.; Madhu, V.; Mishra, V. S. & Chakravorty, B. C. Effect of matix on the ballistic impact of aramid fabrics composite laminates by armor piercing projectiles. Polymer Composites, 2012, 33(3), 443-50.
Samant, S.; Samanta, S.; Banerjee, A.; Nayak, N. & Dutta, D. Ultrasonic Assessment of Bullet inflicted Damage in composites. In the Proceedings of National Seminar on Non-destructive Evaluation. DE-2009, Trichy, 4-5 December 2010. pp. 104-07.
Ratna, D.; Samui, A.B. & Chakraborty, B.C. Flexibility improvement of epoxy resin by Chemical modification. Polymer International, 2004, 53 (11), 1882-887.
PCUS11 Ultrasonic P/R Board Manual, DOC # EBD003-1, Fraunhoffer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing, Saarbruecken, Germany.
Manual QUT, Ultrasonic testing software for the PCUS Ultrasonic Board, Version 4, Quality Network. Pvt. Ltd., 1999.
Wong, C.C.; Chen, C.C. & Su, M.C. A novel algorithm for data clustering. Pattern Recognition, 2001, 34(3), 425-42. Figure 10. Variation in damage area with SV for 10mm and 15mm thick Twaron®-epoxy laminate.
Lambert, J.P. A residual velocity predictive model for long rod penetrators. Report No. ARBRL- MR-02828. Ballistic research laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 1978, 3.
Hetherington, J.G. & Rajagopalan, B.P. An investigation into the energy absorbed during ballistic performance of composite armors Int. J. Impact Engg., 1991, 11(1), 33-40.
Naik, N.K.; Shrirao, P. and Reddy, B.C.K. Ballistic impact behaviour of woven fabric composites: Formulation. Int. J Impact Engg., 2006, 32 (9), 1521-552.
where otherwise noted, the Articles on this site are licensed under Creative Commons License: CC Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 India