Development and Evaluation of Combined Drug Formulation for Autoject-injector, for Emergency Application in Organophosphate Poisoning

  • Neeti Jain Defence Research & Development Establishment, Gwalior
  • Pravin Kumar Defence Research & Development Establishment, Gwalior
  • Deo Kumar Defence Research & Development Establishment, Gwalior
  • Yogendra Mavai ASBASJSM College of Pharmacy, Ropar
  • R. Vijayaraghavan Defence Research & Development Establishment, Gwalior
Keywords: Atropine sulphate, Pralidoxime chloride, autoject- injectors, nerve agents, cholinesterase, oximes, bioassay

Abstract

Atropine sulphate and pralidoxime chloride are considered as essential antidotes in the treatment of nerve agent poisoning. Now in India these antidotes are available in the form of self injectable autoinjectors. This study is designed with aim to replace two individual autoinjectors with single one. Stability of the components plays a vital role in the development of any dosage form, in this study we investigated the stability of the antidotes in combination (atropine sulphate+2 PAMCl) in single drug cartridges. In the present work shelf life of pralidoxime chloride (300 mg/ml) and atropine sulphate (1 mg/ml) solution in combination was evaluated by accelerated studies. The derived model is based on the rate equation and Arrhenius equation was used for extrapolation. Further, antidotal efficacy of atropine sulphate in vitro, using rat’s isolated ileum and pralidoxime chloride by survival studies in vivo against dichlorvas in mice were evaluated, for further confirmation of analytical findings. The constituted formulation was found to be stable for 24 months.

Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(2), pp.105-111, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.1130

Author Biographies

Neeti Jain, Defence Research & Development Establishment, Gwalior
Dr Neeti Jain obtained her masters in pharmacology from Pune University and PhD from Hamdard University, New Delhi. Currently working at Defence Research Development Establishment (DRDE), Gwalior. She extensively worked for pharmacological and toxicological profiling of chemical warfare agents and evaluation of efficacy and safety of newly synthesized antidotes against CW agents. She has expertise in animal model development for pharmacological screening of drugs and development of novel drug. She has more than 10 national and international research articles in her credit. She has supervised 4 MS and M. Pharmacy students.
Pravin Kumar, Defence Research & Development Establishment, Gwalior
Dr Pravin Kumar obtained his MSc (Medical) in Pharmacology from Smt NHLM Medical College, Ahmedabad (Gujarat University) and PhD (Pharmacology) from Jiwaji University, Gwalior. Currently working as Scientist ‘F’ at DRDE, Gwalior. His area of research include: Pharmacological and toxicological studies of chemical warfare (CW) agents, evaluation of efficacy and safety of newly synthesised antidotes against CW agents. He has expertise in inhalation toxicology including quantitative assessment of potential of peripheral sensory irritant compounds (tear gas) following inhalation exposure. He has published more than 55 research papers in national and international journals of repute.
Deo Kumar, Defence Research & Development Establishment, Gwalior
Mr Deo Kumar obtained his MSc (Biochemistry) from University of Poona, Pune. Currently working as Technical Officer `C’ at DRDE, Gwalior. He has expertise in recording and analysis of cardio-respiratory parameters using  multi-channel polygraph in rodents. He is actively involved in the pharmacological and toxicological evaluation compounds defence interest. He has published more than 20 research papers in highly reputed journals with high impact factors.
Yogendra Mavai, ASBASJSM College of Pharmacy, Ropar
Mr Yogendra Mavai obtained Masters in pharmacy in pharmacology from ASBASJSM College of Pharmacy, Bela, Ropar (Punjab). Presently he is working as lecturer at Sri Ram Collage of Pharmacy, Banmore, Morena and engaged in research for screening of new drugs in various animal models.
R. Vijayaraghavan, Defence Research & Development Establishment, Gwalior
Dr R. Vijayaraghavan obtained his MSc and PhD in Medical Pharmacology from JIPMER, Pondicherry and Jiwaji University, Gwalior, respectively.  He is superannuated as Director and Outstanding Scientist from DRDE, Gwalior. Presently working as Director, Research at Saveetha University, Chennai. He was awarded with DRDO Agni Award of Excellence in Self Reliance in 2004 and DRDO Titanium Trophy in 2007. He has developed several products, viz., personal decontamination kit, reusable autoinjectors for nerve gas poisoning, first aid kit for CBW agents, and insect repellent spray and cream. He has about 200 research publications in reputed journals and about 60 patents, copyrights and designs. 
Published
2012-03-13
How to Cite
JainN., KumarP., KumarD., MavaiY., & VijayaraghavanR. (2012). Development and Evaluation of Combined Drug Formulation for Autoject-injector, for Emergency Application in Organophosphate Poisoning. Defence Science Journal, 62(2), 105-111. https://doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.1130
Section
Biomedical Sciences

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