Contemporary Radiation Countermeasure (Review Paper)
Radiation countermeasures have been investigated for decades, but the search for ideal protective agents for use prior to or after irradiation still continues. This review focuses on agents that have demonstrated as potential as in vivo countermeasure agents and may subsequently be effectively used in human beings. Such agents are categorised as radioprotectors, radiation mitigators, or therapeutic agents dependening upon their time of administration. These protective or mitigating agents are designed to reduce inadvertent damage to normal tissue caused by radiation. These interventions function via various mechanisms of action ranging from modulating signalling pathways to inhibiting cell death, cytokines, and growth factor. Many agents demonstrated promising results in murine models and are being tested in human beings. Amifostine, and curcumin have shown radioprotection, while genistein, palifermin, and halofuginone have been shown to alleviate the side effects in patients undergoing radiotherapy. Though these compounds show some promise as radiation countermeasure agents, there are several associated limitations and the search for perfect agents still continues.
Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(2), pp.138-145, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.834
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