Semiconductor Switching Devices. .Future Trends
AbstractA variety of semiconductor devices and circuits have been successfully developed usingconduction properties of electrons and holes in a number of elemental and compound semiconductors.Carriers confinement in a potential well, formed out of a thin layer of lower band gap materialsandwitched between two layers of a higher band gap material, has been extended from one to two andthree dimensions. Resultant of two-dimensional carrier sheet, quantum wire and quantum dot havingdiscrete energy levels arising out of quantisation are being presently explored for possible device applications. A number of devices have been fabricated using resonant tunneling across a thin potentialbarrier. This has opened up several newer possibilities of using such structures for various electronicand optoelectronic devices and circuits applications as tunneling is relatively faster than conductionprocess. While looking into the interband tunneling between two quantum dots, possibility of a singleelectron switching has also been examined carefully. The idea of a single electron switching isconceptually being extended from quantl,lm dots to molecules and atoms ultimately. Simulations basedon transmission of electrons through a chain of molecules and atoms have shown that tens of THz speed and functional device density 1012 devices/mm2 are possible with such schemes. Devices basedon atom relay transistor (ART) will be ultimate in its performance of switching speed. A brief onpresent-day situation followed by future proposals of fast switching devices for informationelectronics has been discussed.
Singh, J. Properties of semiconductors: Electronic states, Zn, semiconductor optoelectronics: physic$ and technology. McGraw Hill, Inc., New York, 1995. pp.53-111.
Bean, J.C. Materials and technologies. In High speed semiconductor devices, edited by S.M. Sze. Wiley Interscience, John, Wiley and Sons' Inc., New York, 1990. pp. 13-55.
Ono, M.; Saito, M. & Yoshitomi, T. Fabrication of sub-50 nm gate length n-metal-oxidesemiconductor field effect transistors and their electrical characteristics.J Vac. Sc. Techn. 1995, B 13(4), 1740-43.
Takamiya, S.; Yoshida, N .; Hayafuji, N .; Sonoda, T. & Mitsui,M. Overview of recent development of HEMTs in the MM-wave range. Solid State Electronics, 1995, 38(9), 1581-88.
Sakaki, H. Molecular beam epitaxy. In, III-V Semiconductor materials and devices, edited by, R J. Malik. Elsevier Science Publisher B. V ., 1989. pp. 217-330.
Suntola, T. Atomic layer epitaxy. Thin Solid Films, 1992,216, 84-89.
Esaki, L. History perspectives of semiconductor superlattices. In Synthetic modulated structures,edited by L.L. Chang and B.C. Giessen. Academic Press, Orlands, 1985. pp. 3-42,
Shen, T.C.; Gao, G.B. & Morkoc, H. Recent developments in ohmic contacts for III- V
compound semiconductors. .I: Vac. Sci. Technol. 1992,810(5),2113-32.
Baba, T .; Mizutani, T. & Ogawa, M. AIAs/n-GaAs superlattice and its application to
high quality two-dimensional electron gas systems. .I: App. Phys., 1986, 59(2), 526-32.
Swaminathan, V: & Macrander, A.T. Materials aspects of GaAs and InP-based structures, Prentice Hall Advanced References Series: Engineering. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliff, New Jersey, 1991. pp. 1-42,
Pollak, F .H. Effects of homogeneous strain on the electronic and vibrational levels. In
Semiconductors and semimetals, edited by T.P. Pearsall. Academic Press, Inc. Boston, 1990. pp. 17-53.
Chao, P.C.; Swanson, A.; Brown, A.; Mishra, U.; Ali, F. & Yuen, C. HEMT devices and circuit applications. In HEMTs and HBT6: devices, fabrication, and circuits, edited by F. Ali and A. Gupta. Artech House, Boston, 1991. pp.77-190.
Pearton, S.J. & Shah, N.J. Heterostructure field effect transistors. In High speed semiconductor devices, edited by S.M. Sze. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 1990.
Capasso. F .; Sen, S. & Beltram, F. Quantum effect devices. -In High speed semiconductor devices, edited by S.M. Sze. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 1990. pp. 465-520.
Sze, S.M. Microwave diodes. In' High speed semiconductor devices, edited by S.M. Sze. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 1990. pp. 521-85.
Hadley, P.; Harrnans, C.J.P.M. & Mooij, J.E. Single electronics: one electron, one bit. FED Journal, 1994, 4 (Suppl.2), 20-27.
Likharev, K.K. Physics and possible applications of single-electron devices. FED Journal, 1995, 6 (Suppl.1), 5-14.
Ji, L.; Dresselhaus, p .D.; Han, S.; Lin, K.; Zheng, W. & Lukens, J.E. Fabrication and
characterisation of single electron transistors and traps. J: Vac. Sci. Technol. 1994, B 12(6), 3619-22.
Kreupl, F.; Vancea, J.; Risch, L.; Hofmann, F. & Hoffmann, H. UltrasmalI Pt clusters for single electron tunneling studies. Microelectronic Engineering, 1996, 30, 451-54.
Altmeyer, S.; Spangenberg, B.; Kuhnel, F. & Kurz, H. Step edge cut-off-Au: new fabrication process for metal-based single electron devices. Microelectronic Engineering, 1996, 399-402.
Chen, w. & Ahmad, H. F.abrication and physics of -2 nm islands for single electron devices. .I: Vac. Sci. Technol., 1995, B 13(6), 2883-887.
Haug, R.J. & Klitzing, K. V. Prospects for research on quantam dots. and single elctron
transistors. FED Journal, 1995,6 (Suppl.2), 4-12.
Leobondung, E.; Guo, L.; Wang, Y. & Chou, S.Y. Single electron and hole quantum dot transistors operating above 110 K. J. Vac. Sci. Technol., 1995, B 13(6), pp 2865-868.
Matsumoto, K.; Ishii, M.; Segawa, K.; Ok&, y .;Vartanian B.J. & Harris, J.S. Room temperature operation of a single electron transistor made by the scanning tunneling microscope nano oxidation process for the TiOxlTi system. App. Phys. Lett., 1996,8(1), 34-36.
Wada, Y. Atom electronics: A proposal for nanoscale devices based on at om/molecule
switching. Microelectronis Engineering, 1996,30,375-82.
Okayama, S.; Kimura, S.; Asai, A. & Maeda, S. Prospects, and status of MITI's quantum
functional device project. Microelectronics Engineering, 1996,30, 17-26.
Kelly, M. Today's new materials: atomic control in one dimension, prospects in nanotechnology, edited by M. Knnenacker and J. Lewis. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1995. pp. 129-46.
Matsui, S. Trends in nanostructure fabrication technology .FED Journal, 1994, 4 (Suppl.2), 34-43.
Ochiai, Y.; Baba, M.; Watanabe, H. & Matsui, S. Ten nanometer resolution nanolithography using newly developed SO-KeV electron beam direct writing system. Jpn. .I: App. Phys., 1991, 30, 3266.
Huang, D.; Uchida, H. & Aono, M. Fabrication of atomic scale structures on Si (111)- 7 x 7 using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Jpn. J. Appl Phys., 1992,31 (12B), 4501-03.
Lebreton, C. & Wang, 2.2. Nanofabrication on gold surface with scanning tunneling microscopy. Microelectronic Engineering, 1996, 30, 391-94.
Where otherwise noted, the Articles on this site are licensed under Creative Commons License: CC Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 India