Structure of ll- VI Lattice Mismatched Epilayers used for Blue-Green Lasers for Underwater Communication

  • K. Pinardi IMEC, Kapeldreef Leuven, Belgium.
  • H.E. Maes IMEC, Kapeldreef Leuven, Belgium.
  • S.C. Jain IMEC, Kapeldreef Leuven, Belgium.
  • Uma Jain Gargi College, University of Delhi,
  • M. Willander Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg
Keywords: Residual strain, Equilibrium theory, Semiconductor epilayers, Uncapped lattice, Critical thickness


Critical thickness (hc) is calculated for capped and uncapped lattice mismatched II-VIsemiconductor epilayers. Both the old equilibrium theory and the improved theory have been used.The calculated values are compared with the experimental data on epilayers of several II-VIsemiconductors and alloys. The observed values of hc are larger than the calculated values. Howeverthe discrepancy is much smaller than that found in InGaAs/GaAs and GeSilSi layers. Moreover ascompared to InGaAs/GaA.s:a nd GeSilSi layers, the experimental data show a much smaller scatter andcan be fitted with one curve. Strain relaxation in layers with thickness h > hc is also calculated. Strainrelaxation in ZnSe layers grown on (100) GaAs shows good agreement with the equilibrium theory. Inother cases the observed relaxation is sluggish, the residual strain is larger than its calculated value.Thick highly mismatched layers behave differently. The residual strain agrees with theory anddislocations are distributed periodically, A model to interpret these observations is suggested.Implications of this study on the stability of 11V- I strained layers are discussed.

Author Biographies

K. Pinardi, IMEC, Kapeldreef Leuven, Belgium.
IMEC, Kapeldreef Leuven, Belgium.
H.E. Maes, IMEC, Kapeldreef Leuven, Belgium.
Dr H E Maes received his MSc (Electrical Engineering) and PhD both from Katholieke UniversityLeuven, Belgium, in 1971 and 1974, respectively. He worked at various research institutions like Laboratory for Physics arid Electronics University of Leuven, Electrical Engineering Research Laboratory.. University of Illinois and ESAT Laboratory and University of Leuven during 1971-85.He joined the newly established R&D laboratory of the Interuniversity Micro-Electronics Centre(IMEC) in Belgium, as Head of Analysis and Reliability in 1985. His areas of research includenon-volatile memory devices, including ferroelectric memories, physics of semiconductor devices,and integrated circuits, reliability issue and the use of physical techniques in semiconductor relatedproblems. He has been elected, a fellow of the IEEE for his contributions in the field of non-volatilesilicon memory devices and MOS reliability physics, wef I January 1998. He has authored more than280 technical papers, some chapters of a book and more than 300 conference papers.
S.C. Jain, IMEC, Kapeldreef Leuven, Belgium.
Dr SC Jain obtained his MSc (Electronics) from Allahabad University and PhD from University ofDelhi, in 1949 and 1955, respectively. He served as Director of Solidstate Physics Laboratory (SPL)and Planning Unit for Research and Training, Ministry of Defence, Delhi, from 1969-84. Since 1985,he has been conducting research at Interuniversity Micro-Electronics Centre (IMEC) in Leuven,Belgium and Oxford University, UK}as Visiting Professor. He was also Visiting Professor at TUAachen, Germany and University of Tucson AZ, USA. He was honoured with Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award in 1966 for his outstanding work in physical sciences. He is a member of severall earned societies. He has published over 280 papers, authored two books and one patent .
Uma Jain, Gargi College, University of Delhi,
Gargi College, University of Delhi,
M. Willander, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg
Dr M Willander received his PhD (Physics) from the Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, in1984. For several years, he worked as Associate Professor at Linkoping University, Sweden. Since1995, he has been working as Professor at Goteborg University/Chalmers University of Technology,Sweden. His areas of research include semiconductor physics and device technology -both theoretical and experimental aspects. He has published a large number of papers in national/international journals.


Gunshor, R.L.; Otsuka, N. & Nurrnikko, A.V. IEEE Spectrum, 1993, Vol (No) pp. 28-33.

Gunshor R.L. & Nurmikko, A. V. Scientific American, July 1996, Vol (No) pp. 34-37.

Hasse, M.A.; Qui, J.; DePuydt, J.M. & Cheng, H. Appl.Phys. Lett., 1991,59,1272-4.

Jeon, H.; Ding, J.; Patterson, W.; Nurmikko, A. V .; Xie, W .; Grillo, D.C.; Kobayaslli, M. & Gunshor, R. L. Appl. Phys. Lett., 1991, 59, 3619-21.

Yu, Z.; Ren, l.; Lansari, Y.; Sneed, B.; Bowers, K.A.; Honey, C.; Eason, D.B.; Vaudo, R.P.;

Gossett, K.l.; Cook, lr., l.W. & Schetzina, l.F. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 1993,32,663-68.

Cavus, A.; Zeng, L.; Tamargo, M.C.; Bambha, N.; Semendy, F. & Gray, A. Appl. Phys. Lett.,

, 68, 3446-48.

Olego, D.l.Appl. Phys. Lett., 1987,51,1422-24.

Petruzzello, l.; Greenberg, B.L. & Dalby, R. J. Appl.Phys., 1988,63,2299-303.

Yokogawa, T .; Sato, H. & Ogura, M. Appl. Phys. Lett., 1988, 52, 1678-80.

Morinaga, Y.; Okuyama, H. & Akimoto, K. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 1993,32,678-80.

Jain, S.C. Germanium-silicon strained layers and heterostructures, Advances in electronics and electron physics series, (Supplement 24 ). Academic Press, Boston 1994.

Jain, S.C.; Maes, H.; Pinardi, K. & Wolf, I.De. J. Appl. Phys., 1996,79,8145.

Jain, S.C.; Willander, M. & Maes, H. Semiconductor Sci. Technol., 1996, 11, 641.

Jain, S.C.; Harker, A.H. & Cowley, R.A. Advances in Physics (in press).

Atkinson, A. & lain, S.C. .l Phys. Condens. Matter, 1993, 5, 4595-600.

Jain, U.; Jain, S.C.; Nijs, l.; Willis, l.R.; Bullough, R.; Mertens, R. & Van Overstraeten, R.

Solid-StateElectron., 1993,36,331-37.

Jain, U .; lain, S.C.; Atkinson, A.; Nijs, l.; Mertens, R. & Van Overstraeten, R. .l Appl. Phys., 1993, 73, 1773-80.

Martin, R.M. Phys. Rev., 1970, B 1, 4005-11.

Zogg, H.; Blunier, S.; Fach, A.; Maissen, C.; Muller, P.; Todoropol, S.; Meyer, V.; Kostorz, G.;

Dommann, A. & Richmond, T. Phys. Rev., 1994, B 50, 10801-10.

Swaminathan, v. Indium phosphide and related materials: processing, technology and devices,

edited by A vishay Katz. Artech House, Boston 1992. p 29.

Chami, A.C.; Ligeon, E.; Danielou, R.;Fontenille, J.; Lentz, G.; Magnea, N. & Mariette, H. Appl. Phys. Lett.,1988, 52, 1874-6.

Jain, S.C.; Gosling, T.l.; Willis, l.R.; Bullough, R. & Balk, P. Solid-State Electron., 1992, 35,


Ball, C.A.B. & Van der Merwe, J.H. Dislocations in solids, edited by F.R.N. Nabarro, North

Holland, 1983. pp. 122-41.

Matthews, J. W. Epitaxial growth, Part B, edited by J. w. Matthews. Academic Press, New York,

pp 559-609; J. W. Matthews, .I: Vac. Sci. Technol., 1975,12, 126-33.

Cohen-Solal, G.; Bailly, F.; Barbe, M. .I: Crystal Growth, 1994,138,68-74.

Bauer, S.; Huber, M.; Ruth, C. & Gebhardt, W. Mat. Science Forum, 1994, 143-147, 531-36.

Faschinger, W.; Juza, P.; Pesek, A. & Sitter, H Materials Sci. Forum, 1994,143-147, 1617-662.

Cibert, J.; Gobil, y .; Dang, Le Si.; Tatarenko, S.; Feuillet, G.; Jouneau, P.H. & Saminadayar, K. Appl. Phys. Lett., 1990, 56, 292-94.

Kret, S.; Karczewski, G.; Zakrzewski, A.;Dluzewski, P.; Dubon, A.; Wojtowicz, T.;

Kossut, J.; Delamarre, C. & Laval, J.Y. Acta Physica P%nica, 1995, A 88, 795-98.

Yao, T.; Okada, Y.; Matsui, S. & Ishida, K. J: CrystalGrowth, 1987,81, 518-23.

Cibert, J.; Andre, R.; Deshayes, C.; Feuillet, G.; Jouneau, P.H.; Dang, Le Si.; Mailard, R.;

Nahmani, A.; Saminadayar, K. & Tatarenko, S. Superlattices and Microstructures, 1991, 9,


Fontaine, C.; Gaillard, J.P.; Magli, S.; Million, A. & Piaguet, gentlemen.Appl. Phys. Lett., 1987,50, 903-05.

Lu, K.; Fisher, P.A.; House, J.L.; Ho, E.; Coronado, C.A.; Petrich, G.S.; Hua, G.C. & Otsuka, N. J: Vac. Sci. Technol., B 12, 1153-55.

Hobson, G.I.; Khamsehpour, B.; Singer, K.E. & Truscott, W .S. J: Crystal Growth, 95, 220-23.

Weng, S.L. J: Appl. Phys., 1989,66, 2217-219.

Orders, P.J. & Usher, B.F.Appl. Phys. Lett., 1987, 50, 980-82.

Gourley, P.J.; Fritz, I.J. & Dawson., L.R. Appl. Phys. Lett., 1988,52, 377-79.

Taguchi, T.; Takeuchi, Y .; Matugatani, K.; Ueno, Y .; Hattori, T .; Sugiyama, Y. & Tacano, M. J: Crystal Growth, 1993,134, 147.

Schwartztman, A.F. & Sinclair, R. J: Electronic Materials, 1991,20, 805-14.

Kim, T.W.; Park, H.L. & Lee, J.Y. Appl. Phys. Lett., 1994, 64, 2526-528.

Jain, U.; Jain, S.C.; Harker, A.H. & Bullough, R.J: Appl. Phys., 1995,77, 103-08.

How to Cite
Pinardi, K., Maes, H., Jain, S., Jain, U., & Willander, M. (2013). Structure of ll- VI Lattice Mismatched Epilayers used for Blue-Green Lasers for Underwater Communication. Defence Science Journal, 48(1), 31-43.