Micromachining for Microelectromechanical Systems

  • K.N. Bhat Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai
Keywords: Micromoulding (LIGA) process, Microelectromechanical


The various micromachining processes required for micro engineering and for the successful realisation of micro eletro mechanical systems on Si are presented. The techniques presented include bulk and surface micro machining, Si fusion bonding, and the lithography, electroforming and micromoulding (LIGA) process. The paper also includes discussion on the markets, applications and future trends for micro enginerated products.

Author Biography

K.N. Bhat, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai
Dr KN Bhat obtained his MTech (Electrical Engineering) from Indian Institute of Technology (IIT),Madras, MEng (Electrophysics and Electronic Engineering) from R.P.I., Troy, New York, and PhD(Electrical Engg. ) from IIT , Madras. Presently. he is working as Professor, Electrical Engineering atlIT, Madras and is also coordinating the microelectronics and microengineering research activity.Areas of his research include Si and GaAs device technology & modelling, SOl MOSFETs  foroperation in radiation environment, polysilicon thin film transistors, GaAs and InP surfacepassivation and MISFETs, micromachined sensors using Si. He has published more than hundred technical papers, successfully completed several sponsored projects and guided graduate level projects, MS and .PhD Theses. He is a life member of Semiconductor Society of India, Material Research Society of India and a founder member of the VLSI Society of India.


Studt, T. Smart sensors widens views on measuring data. Research & Development, March

p. 18.

Bang, C.A.; Melzak, J.M. & Mchregany, M. From microchips to MEMS. Microlithography World, Spring 1994. p.15.

Sampsell, J.B. The digital micromirrordevice and its application to projection displays. 7th

International Conference on Solidstate Sensors and Actuators, Tokohama, Japan, June 1993.


Peterson, K.E. Silicon as a mechanical material. IEEE Proc. 1982,70,420-57.

Kendall, D.L. On etching very narrow grooves in Silicon. .I: Appl. Phys. Lett, 1975,26, 195.

Seidel, H. The mechanism of anisotropic .Silicon etching and its relevance for micromachining; Digest of Tech. Papers, Transducers '87'. 4th International Conference Solid state Sensors and Actuators, 1987, p.120-25.

Hurakoa, H:; Ohhashi, T. & Sumitomo, T . Controlled preferential etching technology. In Semiconductor; in Silicon, edited by H.R.Huff and R.R.Burgess, Electroche. Soc. Princeton,New Jersey, 1973.

Greenwoood, J.C. Ethylene-diarnine-catechol-water mixture shows preferential etching of p-n

junctions.J: Electrochem. Soc., 1969,116,1325.

Bohg, A. Ethylene-diamine-pyrocatechol-water mixture shows etching anomaly in boron-doped silicon,J Electrochem. Soc., 1971,118, 401.

Price, J.B. Amisotropic etching of silicon with KOH H20 isoprophyl alcohol. In Semiconductor

Silicon, edited by H.R. Huff and R.R. Burgess, Electrochem. Soc. Princeton, New Jersey, 1973, pp.338-53.

Barth, p .W .Si fusion bonding for the fabrication of sensors, actuators, and microstructures.

Sensors &Actuators, 1990, A21-23, 919-26.

Gosele, V .; Hopfe, S.; Li, S.; Mack, S.; Martini, T .; Reiche, M.; Schmidt, E.; Stenzel, H. & Yang, Q. Y .What determines the lateral bonding speed in Silicon wafer bonding. Appl. Phys. Lett., 1995, 67(6), 863-65.

Zengerlie, R.; Richur, A.; & Sandmur, H. A micromembrane pump with electrostatic actuator

Proceedings of IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Workshop, Travemunde, Germany,

, pp.19-24.

Jerman, H. Electrically activated, normally-closed diaphragm valves. Digest of Technical Papers.' 6th International Conference on Solid state Sensors and Actuators, San Francisco, California, June 1991, pp.1045-48.

Mehregany, M.; Senturia, S.D.; Lang, J.H. & Nagarkar, P. Micromotor fabrication, IEEE,

Trans. on Electron. Devices, 1992, ED-39, 2060-69.

Becker, E.W.; Ehrfeld, Wo; Hagmann, P Maner, A & Munchneger, D Fabrication of

Microstructures with high aspect ratios and great structural heights by synchrotron radidation

lithography, galvanoforming and plastic moulding (LIGA process). Microelectronic

Engineering, 1986,4,35.

Suzuki, K. Single crystal Silicon microactuators. Tech. Digest, IEOM, 1990, p.26.

Guckel, H.; Skrobis, K.J.; Christensen, T.R.; Klein, J.; Han, S.; Choi, B.; Lovel, E.G. &

Chapman, T. W. On the application of deep x-ray lithography with sacrificial layers to sensor and actuator construction (The magnetic micromotor with Power take offs).Transducers' 91, Tech. Digest, 1991, p.393.

Ahn, C,H. & Allen, M.G. A fully integrated micromagnetic actuator with a multilevel meander magnetic core. IEEE Solidstate Sensor and Actuator Workshop. Tech. Digest, Hilton Head Island, SC, 1992, p.14.

Ehrfield, W.; Gotz, F.;' Munchmeyr, D.; Schelb, W. & Schmidt, D. LIGA process: Sensor

construction techniques via X-ray lithography. Record of the IEEE Solidstate Sensor and

Actuator Workshop, 1998, pp.14.

Santilli, R. Markets for microengineered products. Europ. Semicond Internat., 1995, 19-20.

How to Cite
Bhat, K. (2013). Micromachining for Microelectromechanical Systems. Defence Science Journal, 48(1), 5-19. https://doi.org/10.14429/dsj.48.3863