Bond Growth under Temperature Gradient.

  • P.K. Satyawali Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment, Manali.
Keywords: Snow matrix, Snow viscosity, TG metamorphism, Bond growth


Grain and bond growth for dry snow are determined by the distribution of temperature andtemperature gradient in the snow matrix. From the standpoint of particle approach and based oncubic packing structure, a bond growth model has been developed for TG metamorphism. The paper.highlights the importance of bond formation and its effect on snow viscosity and finally on the rateof settlement. This is very important for developing a numerical snow pack model if microstructureis considered to be a basic parameter. A few experiments have been carried out to validate bond formation under temperature gradient.

Author Biography

P.K. Satyawali, Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment, Manali.
Mr PK Satyawali, Scientist, obtained his MSc (Physics). He joined DRDO at the Snow & Avalanche Study Estt. (SASE), Manali, in 1991. At SASE, he is associated with the development of snowcover simulation model. His other areas of research include: Snow metamorphism, snow microstructure and water vapour flow into snow.


Kojima, K. Viscous compression of natural snowlayer 11. Low Temp. Sci., 1956, A 15, 117-35.

Akitaya, E. Studies on depth hoar. Contrib. Inst. Low Temp. Sci., 1974, 26.

Yoshida, Z. et al. Physical studies on deposited snow. Contrib. Inst. Low Temp. Sci., 1955, 7, 19-74.

Brown, R.L. Microstructural model for effective conductivity of snow report submitted at Swiss Federal Institute for Snow & Avalanche Research, Davos, Switzerland. 1998.

Satyawali, P. K. Grain growth under temperature gradient: A simple approach. Proceedings of the SNOWSYMP - 94, Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment, Manali, India, 1994.

Schneebeli, Martin, et. al. Measuring snow microstructure and hardness using a high resolution penetrometer. Proceedings of the ISSW'98, Sunriver, Oregon, USA, 1998.

Pielmeier, Christine. Analysis and discrimination of snow structure and snow profiles using a high resolution penetrometer. Ludwig-Maximilians- Universitat, Munchen, Germany. 1998, Diploma thesis (unpublished).

Lmeohdneiln gf,o Mr .t ehte. aal.v 0af ae nrcahtieo nwala ursnein ogf as senrovwicpea cink

Switzerland: Model development and first experiences. 1998.

How to Cite
Satyawali, P. (2013). Bond Growth under Temperature Gradient. Defence Science Journal, 49(5), 363-370.
Special Issue Papers