Remote Sensing of Snow in the Solar Spectrum: Experiments in the French Alps.
AbstractTwo experiments were perfonned irliApril and December 1992 in the French Alps using simultaneous relnote sensing and ground truth data. Snow grain site and soot content of samples collected in the
field were measured. The Landsat thematic mapper (TM) sensor was used because it has a good spatial resolution, a middle infrared channel which is sensitive to grain size and a thermal infrared
channel. Firstj the reflectance data were compared with the theoretical results obtained from a bidirectional reflectance model. Then, some remote sehstng-derived snow parameters wbre compared
iWith the outpllt ofa snow metamorphism model (CROCUS),viz., lower elevation of the snowcover, lhe surface grl1in size and the surface temperature. A digital elevation model was used to obtain the
local incidenc:f angles and the elevation of each snow pixel. The pixels were then grouped according to CROCUS classification (range, elevation, slope, and orientation) and the mean snow chart;cheracteristics
for each class were .compared with the tROCUS results. The lower limit of snow and the surface grain size derived from TM data were compared favourably with the model results. Larger differences were
found for the temperature, because it varies rapidly and is very sensitive to shadowing by the snrrounding mountains and also because its remote measurement is dependent on atmospheric conditions.
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