Performance Decrement by Exposure to Sub-Lethal Doses of lonising Radiations
AbstractUnder many circumstances, exposure to ionising radiation can impede performance significantly. After large doses, lethal or supra-Iethal, behavioural effects are rapid (within minutes), but up to 10 Gy, performance deficits develop rather slowly and are long-Iasting. All tasks are not equally radiosensitive; tasks with complex and demanding requirements may be disrupted even at low radiation doses (<1 Gy). Combined injuries can act synergistically with radiation exposure to greatly increase behavioural deficits. Most of the adioprotectors developed todate are themselves behaviourally toxic at radioprotective as well as non-protective doses and the adverse effects are further aggravated in the presence of radiation. A very limited number of radioprotectors have been found to give behavioural radioprotection at very low, almost non-toxic doses.
Wheeler, T.G. & Hardy, K.A. Retrograde amnesia produced by electron beam exposure: :causal parameters and duration of memory loss. Radiation Research, 1985, 101, 74-80.
Mazumdar, S.K. & Ray, S.N. Responses of the central nervous system to low doses of ionizing radiation. Indian J. Med. Res ., 1965,53, 1158-63.
Franz, C.G. Effects of mixed neutron-gamma total body irradiation on physical activity performance of Rhesus monkeys. Radiation Research,1985, 101, 434-41.
Lebedinsky,A. V.; Grigoryev, U .G & Demirchoglyan, C.G. On the biological effect of small doses of ionizing radiation. In Proceedings II United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. Geneva, United Nations, 1958.
Gangloff, H. Acute effects ofX-irradiation on brain electrical activity in cats and rabbits.lITadiation, genetics and ageing: Behavioural implications. In effects of ionizing radiation on the nervous system. In Proceedings of the International Conference, Vienna International Atomic Energy Agency, 1962, pp. 123-38
Siesjo, B. Cell damages in brain: A speculative synthesis.
.1: Cerebn. Blood Flow Metab., 1981, I, 55.
Bassant, M.H. & Court, L. Effects of whole body gamma iITadiation on the activity of rabbit hippocampal neurons. Radiation Research, 1978, 75, 503-606.
Peimer, S.I.; Dudkin, A.O. & Swerdlov, A.G. Response of hippocampal pace-maker like 71neurons to low doses of ionizing radiation Inl. J. Radial. Bioi., 1986, 49, 597-600.
Mechanik, J.I.; Hochberg, F.H. & LaRocque, A. Hypothalamic dysfunction following whole brain irradiation. Journal of Neurochemistry, 1986,65,490-94.
Halliwell, B. Reactive oxygen species andcentral nervous system. Journal of Neurosurgery,
Pellmar, T.C. Use of brain slices in the study of free radicals actions. J. Neurosci. Methods, 1995, 59, 93-98.
Pellmar, T.C.; Hollinder, G.E. & Sarvey, J.M. Free radicals accelerate the decay of long term potentiation (LTP) in field CA 1 of guinea pig hippocampus. Neuroscience., 1991,44 (2), 353-59
Van Cleave, C.D. Irradiation and the nervous system. Rowman and Littlefield, Inc. New York, 1963.
Harlow, H.F. & Moon, L.E. The effects of repeated doses of total body X-irradiation on motivation and learning in rhesus monkeys. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 1956, 49, 60-65.
Mc Dowell, A.A. & Brown, W.L. Facilitative effects of irradiation on performance of monkeys 0!1 discrimination problems with reduced stimulus cues. J. Genet. Psychol., 1958, 93, 73.
Fields, P.E. The-effect ofwhole body X-radiation
upon activity drum, straightaway and maze performance of white rats. .1: Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 1957, 50,386-91.
Brown, G.C. Behavioural and pathological following a 11 00-rad radiation exposure. Ann Arbor, MI., Univ. Microfilms International, 1984 Thesis.
Yochmowitz, M.G. & Brown, G.C. Performance in a 12-hour, JOO-rad profile. Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 1977, 48, 241-47.
Barnes, D.J.; Patrick, R.P.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Yaeger, R.L.; Lof,N.E.; Hardy, K.A. & Bastien, Ro Wo Protracted low dose ionizing radiation effects upon primate performance. Brooks Air Force Base, TX: School of Aerospace Medicine, 1977. Technical Report.
Yochmowitz, M.G.; Patrick, R.; Jaeger, R. & Barnes, D. Protracted radiation-stressed primate performance. Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 1977,48,598-06.
Yochmowitz, M.G.; Brown, G.C. & Hardy, K.A. Performance following a 500-675 rad neutron pulse. Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 1985, 56, 525-33.
Bogo, V.; Franz, C.F. & Young, R. W. Effects of radiation on monkey discrimination performance. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Radiation Research (abs.), edited by E.M. Fielden, J.F. Fowler, J.H. Hendry & D.;:Scott, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1987, 259p.
Bruner, A. Immediate dose rate effects of CO-60 on performance and blood pressure in monkeys. Radiation Research, 1977, 70, 378-90.
Hunt, E.L. & Kimeldorf, D.l. Behavioural arousal and neural activation as radiosensitive reactors. Radiation Research, 1964, 21, 91-110".
Bogo, V. Effects ofbremsstrahlung and electron
radiation on rat motor performance. Radiation Research, 1984, 100, 313-20.
Casarett, A.P. Radiation Biology. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice Hall, Inc., 1968.
Bogo, V.; Zemon, G.H. & Dooley, M.A. Radiation
quality and rat motor performance. Radiation Research, 1989, 118, 341-52.
Hunt, W.A. Comparative effects of exposure to high-energy electrons and gamma radiation on active avoidance behaviour. Int. J. Radiat Biol., 1983, 44, 257-60.
Mattson, 1.L. & Yochmowitz, M.G. Radiation induced emesis in monkeys. Radiation Research, 1980,82,191-99.
Walker, R.I.; Gruber, D.F.; MacVittie, T.l. & Conklin, 1.1. (Eds). The pathophysiology of combind injury and trauma: Radiation, burn and trauma. Baltimore, Univ. Park Press, 1985.
Grube, D.; Walker, R.I.; MacVittie, T.J. & Conklin, J.J., (Eds). The pathophysiology of combined injury and trauma. Management of infectious complications in mass casualty situation. Orlando FL, Academic Press, 1987. Technical Report.
Landauer, M.R.; Ledney, G.D. & Davis, H.D. Locomotor behaviour in mice following exposure to fission-neutron irradiation and trauma. Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 1987, 58, 1205-10.
Wheeler, T.G. & Cordts, R.E. Combined effects of ionizing radiation and anticholinesterase exposure on rodent motor performance Tech. Report) Brooks Air Force Base, TX, School of Aerospace Medicine, 1983. Technical Report.
Kimeldorf, D.J. & Hunt, L.E. Ionizing radiation. Neural function and behaviour. New York, London, Academic Press, 1965.
Young, R. W. & Auton, D.L. The Defense Nuclear
Agency intermediate dose programme: An overview, edited by G.E. Lee & T.E. Verich, 85-89, Colorado Springs, US Air Force Academy, 1984. TR-84-2; AD-A141-043-0.
Karas, J.S. & Stanbury, J.B. Fatal radiation syndrome from an accidental nuclear excursion. New. Engl. J. Med., 1965, 272, 755-61
Howland, 1.W.; Ingram, M.; Mermagen, H. & Hansen, C.L. The Lockport incident: Accidental exposure ofhumans to large doses of X-irradiation. In Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Radiation Injury, Geneva, -World Health Organisation, 1961. pp. 11-26.
Young, R. W. Acute radiation syndrome. In Military radiobiology edited by 1.1 .Conklin & R.I. Walker. Orlando, FL, Academic Press, Inc., 1987. pp.172- 76.
Telyatnikov, L. The top story of 1987. Paper presented at the Great Great American F irehouse Exposition
and Muster, Baltimore, Maryland, 1987.
Rabin, B.M. & Hunt, W.A. Mechanisms of radiation induced conditioned taste aversion learning. Neurosci. Biobehave. RevGreat American F irehouse Exposition
and Muster, Baltimore, Maryland, 1986.10, 55-65
Mukherjee, S.K.; Goel, H.C.; Pant, K. & lain, V. Preyention of radiation-induced taste aversion in rats. Indian J. Exp. Bioi., 1997, 35 232-35.
Mukherjee, S.K.; Pant, K; Goel, H.C. & lain, V.
Protection against radiation-induced performance
decrement in mice. Del Sci. J. 1997, 47(2),
Laurence, D.R. & Bacharach, A.L. Evaluation of drug activities; Pharmacometrics. Academic Press, London, 1964,161 p.
Goodman, Gilman. The pharmacological basis
of therapeutics, Ed. 9. ~acmillan, New York,
Young, R. W. Mechanism and treatment of adiationinduced nausea and vomiting. In Naus.ea and
vomiting mechanism and .treatment, edited by C.J. Davis, G. V. Lake-Bakkar and G. V. Grahame-m Smith. Springer- Verlag, New York, 1986. pp. 94-109.
, Dubois, A. & Fiala, N. Prevention and treatment of the gastric symptoms of radiation sickness. Radiation Research, 115, 595-604.
Yoshifumi, T.; Mikio, S.; Hiroshi, S. &Novio, M. X-irradiation induced emesis in suncus Murinus. J. Radial. Res., 1993, 34, 164.
Cubeddu, L.X.; JIoffmann, I.S.; Fuenmayor, N. T. & Finn, A.L. Efficacy of ondansetron and the role of serotonin in cisplatin-induced nausea and vomiting. New Engl. J. Med.,
, 320(12), 810.
Costall, B.; Domeney, A.M.; Gunning, S.l.; Naylor, R.l.; Tattersall, F.D. & Tyers, M.B. A potent and novel inhibitor of cisplatin-induced emesis in the ferret. Br: J. Pharmacol., 1987, 90,90.
Hawthorn, J.; Ostter, K.J. & Andrews, P.L. The role of abdominal visceral-innervation and 5HT M-receptor in vomiting induced by cytotoxic drugs. J. Exp. Physiol., 1988, 73, 7.
Markham, A. & Sorkin, E.M. Ondansetron: An update of its therapeutic use in chemotherapyinduced and post operative drugs 1993,45 ,(6), 931.
Ben1ine, T.A. & French, J. Anti-emetic drug effects on cognitive and psychomotor performance: Granisetron vs ondansetron. Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 1997,68(6),504-11.
Morrow, G.R.; Hickok, J.T. & Rosenthal, S.N. Progress in reducing nausea and emesis: Comparisons of ondansetron, granisetron and .tropisetron. Cancer, 1995, 76(3 ), 343-57.
Takeda, N .; Hasegawa, S.; Morita, M. & Matsunaga, T. Pica in rats analogous to emesis: An animal model. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 1993,45,817.
. Gupta, Y.K. & Prakash, A. Therapeutic potential of 5HT receptor modulators. Indian J p harmacol. 1994, 26, 94.
Giambarresi, L. & Jacobs, A.J. Radioprotectants. In Military radiobiology, edited by. J .J .Conklin & R.I. Walker. Orlando, FL. Academic Press Inc. 1987
Bogo, V. Behavioural radioprotection. Pharmacal.
Ther., 1988, 39, 73- 78.
Bogo, V.; Jacobs, A.J & Weiss, J.F. Behavioural toxicity and efficacy of WR-2721 as a radioprotectant. Radiation Research, 1985 104, 182-90
Bogo, V.; Franz, C.G.; Jacobs, A.F.; Weiss, J,F. & Young,-R.W. WR-2721, Radiation and visual discrimination performance. Pharmacal. Ther., 1988, 39, 93-95
Williams, C.D.; Weiss, J .F. & Bogo, V. Motor performance evaluation ofbehavioural toxicity in mice: Effects of radiation and radioprotective agents. Proc. Soc. Armed Forces Med. Lab. Scient., 1987, 16, 25.
Landauer, M.R.; Davis, H.D.; Dominitz, J.A. & Weiss, J.F. Dose and time relationships of the radioprotector WR-2721 on locomotor activity in mice. Pharmacal. Biachem. Behav.,
Floersheim, G.L. Calcium antagonist protect mice against lethal doses of ionizing radiation. Br. J. Radiol., 1992, 65, 1025-29.
Weiss, J.F.; Kumar, K.S.; Walden, T.L.; Neta, R.; Landaner, M.R. & Clork, E.P. Advances in radioprotection through the use of combined agent regimens. Int. J Radial. BioI., 1990, 57(4). 709-22.
Uma Devi, P. & Ganasoundari, A. Radioprotective effect of leaf extract of Indian medicinal plant Ocimum Sanctum. Indian J. Exp. Bioi., 1995, 33,205-08.
Mulhern, R.K.; Ochs, J. &Kum, L.E. Changes in intellect associated with cranical radiation therapy. In Radiation injury to the nervous system, edited by P.H.Gutin, S.A. Leibel & E.G. Sheline, Raven Press, N .Y., 1991.pp.165-90.
Young, W.R. Acute radiation syndrome. In
Military radiology, edited by 1.1 .Conklin and
R.I. Walker. Academic Press, 1987, pp. 165-90.
where otherwise noted, the Articles on this site are licensed under Creative Commons License: CC Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 India