Development and Characterisation of Nanoclays from Indian Clays

  • S. Manocha Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar
  • Nikesh Patel Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar
  • L.M. Manocha Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar
Keywords: Indian clays, montmorillonite, intercalation, cation exchange capacity, smectite, nanoclays


Indian clays are known for their smecticity. One such clay sample collected from Bhuj (Gujarat)was characterised and modified by successive sedimentation processes for different time intervals.The non-plastic components of clay, viz., quartz, illite, iron oxide, CaO, MgO, and organic matterwere removed in different steps, as the heavy impurities in the clay-water suspensions, settledown during sedimentation. The free iron oxide present in clay suspension was reduced bygiving sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite treatment and iron content was further reducedfrom 12Œ15 per cent to 5Œ7 per cent respectively. The organic matter was removed by sodiumacetate-H2O2 treatment. The modified clay so obtained was characterised by thermal analysis,FTIR, and XRD,  SEM and TEM. The cation exchange capacities of original and modified clayswere determined both by methylene blue method and ammonium acetate method. The cationex change capacity is found to enhance from 120Œ130 meq/100 g to 135Œ145 meq/100 g. Usingthe above procedure, 92 per cent smecticity was obtained. Organo philisation of purified clay(smectite) was carried out by intercalation with alkyl ammonium salt. The  XRD  analysis show edenhancement of interlamellar spacing from 1.294 nm to 2.855 nm.

Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(4), pp.517-524, DOI:

How to Cite
Manocha, S., Patel, N., & Manocha, L. (2008). Development and Characterisation of Nanoclays from Indian Clays. Defence Science Journal, 58(4), 517-524.