Global Environmental Microelectromechanical Systems Sensors: Advanced Weather Observation System

  • Rajiv Kumar Das Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment, Chandigarh
  • Rajesh Kumar Garg Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment, Chandigarh
Keywords: GEMS, global environmental MEMS sensors, MEMS, microelectromechanical systems, weather forecast, networking, deployment, cyclone, monsoon, military


The technological developments in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have resulted in conceptualisation of a next generation observation system called global environmental MEMS sensors (GEMS). GEMS consists of a large number of airborne probes that will remain suspended in the atmosphere for long durations and take in situ measurements of pressure, temperature, humidity, wind direction and velocity as these are carried by air currents. It is envisaged that GEMS network would provide a systematic understanding of the earths atmosphere and would improve weather forecast accuracy, well beyond the current capability. In addition to gathering meteorological data, probes could be used for environmental monitoring of particulate emissions, organic and inorganic pollutants, ozone, carbon dioxide, and chemical, biological, or nuclear contaminants. The GEMS concept requires integration of communication engineering and instrumentation with other evolving technologies. This review describes in detail the new observation system designed for environmental monitoring and its potential application in predicting cyclones and monsoon, and measurement of urban air pollution in India. The possible application of the GEMS system during military operations has also been brought out.

Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(6), pp.659-665, DOI:

How to Cite
Das, R., & Garg, R. (2009). Global Environmental Microelectromechanical Systems Sensors: Advanced Weather Observation System. Defence Science Journal, 59(6), 659-665.