Anthropometric Measurement and Comparative Analysis of Ethiopian Army Personnel Across Age, Ethnicity, and Nationality

Keywords: Body dimension, Physical measurement, Ergonomic design, Army workspace, PCA


The anthropometric characteristics of the users depend upon the topography, nutrition, age, ethnicity, gender, and living conditions, and play a crucial role in the design of the equipment and the workspace to be used by them. This study aims to establish an anthropometry database for male Ethiopian army personnel and investigate the anthropometric variability across ethnicity, age, and with other countries, with the intention to facilitate ergonomic design and development of various facilities (e.g., equipment/ devices, and workspaces) for the Ethiopian army. Following the reliability assessment of the physical measurement technique, the anthropometric data from 250 Ethiopian male army personnel (four different ethnic groups at different age levels) were collected, and normality of the data set was tested. The anthropometric database of Ethiopian army personnel in terms of range, mean, standard deviation, percentile values (5th, 50th, and 95th) was documented. PCA was applied to select a smaller representative by reducing a larger set of variables for further statistical analysis and applications. ANOVA and follow-up posthoc test (Tukey’s HSD test) were carried out to compare anthropometric differences among different age groups and ethnic variations. The mean anthropometric differences were also compared with databases from other countries (India, Korea, and USA) using t-test. Significant variations were found when the anthropometry was compared between age, ethnicity, and cross-nationals. The findings indicate that variations in age, ethnicity, and geographical factors could have a significant impact on the ergonomic design of equipment and workspaces of Ethiopian army personnel.


Sutalaksana, I. Z. & Widyanti, A. Anthropometry approach in workplace redesign in Indonesian Sundanese roof tile industries. Int. J. Ind. Ergon., 2016, 53, 299-305.

Chatterjee, T.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Majumdar, D. & Pal, M. Ergonomic assessment of multi calibre individual weapon system in virtual reality platform. Def. Sci. J., 2019, 69(3), 240-248.

Brabec, M. Analysis of periodic fluctuations of the height of Swedish soldiers in 18th and 19th centuries. Econ. Hum. Biol., 2005, 3(1), 1-6.

Nowak, E. The role of anthropometry in design of work and life environments of the disabled population. Int. J. Ind. Ergon., 1996, 17(2), 113-121.

Vaidya, R.; Bhalwar, R. & Bobdey, S. Anthropometric Parameters of Armed Forces Personnel. Med J. Armed Forces India, 2009, 65(4), 313-318.

Karmegam, K.; Sapuan, S. M.; Ismail, M. Y.; Ismail, N.; Bahri, M. S.; Shuib, S.; Mohana, G. K.; Seetha, P.; TamilMoli, P. & Hanapi, M. J. Anthropometric study among adults of different ethnicity in Malaysia. Int. J. Phys. Sci., 2011, 6(4), 777-788.

Jafry, T. & O’Neill, D. H. The application of ergonomics in rural development: a review. Appl. Ergon., 2000, 31(3), 263-268.

Da Silva, G. V.; Gordon, C. C. & Halpern, M. Comparison of anthropometry of Brazilian and US Military population for flight deck design. Int. J. Ind. Ergon., 2018, 64, 170-177.

Tomkinson, G.R.; Clark, A.J. & Blanchonette, P. Secular changes in body dimensions of Royal Australian Air Force aircrew (1971–2005). Ergonomics, 2010, 53(8), 994-1005.

Dobbins, D.A. & Kindick, C.M. Anthropometry of the Latin-American armed forces (No. USATTC-7209002). Army Tropic Test Center APO MIAMI, 1972, 34004.

Gordon, C.C.; Churchill, T.; Clauser, C.E.; Bradtmiller, B.; McConville, J. T.; Tebbetts, I. & Walker, R. A. Anthropometric survey of US Army personnel: Summary statistics, interim report for 1988. Anthropology Research Project Inc Yellow Springs OH, 1989.

Bharadwaj, H.; Verma, S.; Zachariah, T.; Kishnani, S.; Das, S.; Pramanik, S.; Singh, I. & Satwanti, M. Sizing of trousers and shirts for Indian army personnel : An anthropometric application. Def. Sci. J., 2014, 36(1), 77-94.

Hart, G.L.; Rowland, G.E. & Malina, R. Anthropometric survey of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Korea, Rowland and Co Haddonfield NJ, 1967, 66, 30-39.

Zachariah, T., Kishnani, S., Pramanik, S.N., and Selvamurthy, W. Body measurements: design application and body composition. DRDO Monograms/ Special Publication Series, Delhi, 2001. [ISBN: 81-86514-07-4].

Berhe, M. G. The Ethiopian post-transition security sector reform experience: building a national army from a revolutionary democratic army. Afr. Secur. Rev., 2017, 26(2),161-79.

Yusof, N.N.M.; Nur, N.M.; Baidzawi, I.J.; Jusoh, W.N.W. & Roslin, E.N. The anthropometric differences among Malaysian, Singaporean and Indonesian, and their compatibility with boeing 737 cockpit layout design. Int. J. Innov. Tech. Expl. Eng., 2019, 8(12), 5734-5739.

Max, R.; Cameron, A. & Hannah, R. Human height., 2020. (Accessed March 17, 2020).

Blanchonette, P. & Alistair, F. Preliminary anthropometric specification for land vehicles. No. DSTO-TN-1111. Defence Science and Technology Organization Victoria (Australia) Air Operations DIV, 2012.

Oudenhuijzen, A.J.; Zehner, G. & Hudson, J. Dutch anthropometry for vehicle design and evaluation. No. TNO-DV-2008-A211. TNO Defence Security and Safety Soesterberg (Netherlands), 2008.

Halder, P.; Mahmud, T.; Sarker, E.; Karmaker, C.; Kundu, S.; Patel, S. & Shah, K. Ergonomic considerations for designing truck drivers’ seats: The case of Bangladesh. J. Occup. Health, 2018, 16(1), 64-73

Tank archive. Ergonomics, 2013. (Accessed March 20, 2020).

Guan, J.; Hsiao, H.; Bradtmiller, B.; Zwiener, J.V.; Amendola, A.A. & Weaver, D.L. Anthropometric study of US truck drivers: methods, summary statistics, and multivariate accommodation models. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), USA, 2015.

Haitao, H.; Haitao, H.; Zhizhong, L.; Jingbin, Y.; Wang, X.; Xiao, H.; Jiyang, D. & Zheng, L. Anthropometric measurement of the Chinese elderly living in the Beijing area. Int. J. Ind. Ergon., 2007, 37, 303–311.

How to Cite
Wibneh, A., Singh, A., & Karmakar, S. (2020). Anthropometric Measurement and Comparative Analysis of Ethiopian Army Personnel Across Age, Ethnicity, and Nationality. Defence Science Journal, 70(4), 383-396.
Combat Engineering