Study on Crush Tube Geometric Cross sections and Topology for Axial Crashworthiness
Crush tubes are used as crash impact energy absorbing structure (EAS) and are located in the frontal compartment of road vehicles. Ideal crashworthiness of an EAS mandates that the equivalent decelerations due to impact forces should to be ≤ 20g; and crush force and stroke efficiencies should tend to unity. It is understood from the literature that no single geometric cross-section shape exhibits a near-ideal crashworthiness; and most EAS members exhibit a high initial peak crush force which is detrimental to the occupant safety, and moderate stroke and crush force efficiencies leading to a compromise in the total energy absorbed. In this paper, finite element analysis (FEA) methodology is formulated and experimentally validated for axial crush of a crush tube of SS304 material with circular cross section. Subsequently, plastic deformation phenomenon and folding patterns in relation to crush force behaviour of crush tubes with various basic cross-sections of polygonal geometric shapes from triangle to octagon and circle are extensively studied through FEA. Further, two new geometric cross-section profiles with combination of basic shapes are proposed to combine the merits of different basic shapes. The crashworthiness of all basic cross-sections including the two proposed cross-section profiles is assessed based on standard parameters. The proposed new geometries may form a basis for the development of new EAS configurations for enhanced crashworthiness.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Final regulatory impact analysis: amendment of FMVSS No. 208-Passenger car front seat occupant protection. Washington DC: US Department of Transportation. 1984.
Du, B.P.; Chou, C.C.; Fileta, B.B.; Khalil, T.B.; King, A.I.; Mahmood, H.F.; Mertz, H.J.; Wismans, J.; Prasad, P. & Belwafa, J.E. Automotive Applications Committee-American Iron and Steel Institute. Southfield, MI, USA, 2004.
Huang, M. Vehicle Crash Mechanics. CRC Press, 2002.
World Health Organization. Global Status Report on Road Safety, 2015.
Lu, G. & Yu, T.X. Energy absorption of structures and materials. Elsevier, 2003.
Chou, C.C.; Howell, R.J. & Chang, B.Y. A review and evaluation of various HIC algorithms. SAE Trans., 1988, 1, 713-747.
Perrone, N. Biomechanical problems related to vehicle impact. Prentice Hall, NJ, USA, 1972.
Clemens, H.J. & Burow, K. Experimental investigation on injury mechanisms of cervical spine at frontal and rear-front vehicle impacts. SAE Trans., 1972, 1, 2779-2796.
Gabauer, D. & Thomson, R. Correlation of vehicle and roadside crash test injury criteria. In Proceedings of the 19th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV), Washington DC, 2005, 6, 6-9.
Ambrosio, J.A. Crashworthiness: Energy Management and Occupant Protection. Springer, 2014.
Salehghaffari; Tajdari, M.; Panahi, M. & Mokhtarnezhad, F. Attempts to improve energy absorption characteristics of circular metal tubes subjected to axial loading. Thin-Walled Struct., 2010, 8(6), 379-390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2010.01.012
Abramowicz, W. Thin-walled structures as impact energy absorbers. Thin-Walled Struct., 2003, 41(2-3), 91-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-8231(02)00082-4
Andrews, K.R.; England, G.L. & Ghani, E. Classification of the axial collapse of cylindrical tubes under quasi-static loading. Int. J. Mech. Sci., 1983, 25 (9-10), 687-696. https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7403(83)90076-0
Sun, G.; Pang, T.; Xu, C.; Zheng, G. & Song, J. Energy absorption mechanics for variable thickness thin-walled structures. Thin-Walled Struct., 2017, 118, 214-228. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2017.04.004
Zahran, M.S.; Xue, P.; Esa, M.S.; Abdelwahab, M.M. & Lu, G. A new configuration of circular stepped tubes reinforced with external stiffeners to improve energy absorption characteristics under axial impact. Latin American J. Sol. Struct., 2017, 14(2), 292-311. https://doi.org/10.1590/1679-78253231
Tvergaard, V. On the transition from a diamond mode to an axisymmetric mode of collapse in cylindrical shells. Int. J. Sol. Struct., 1983, 19(10), 845-856. https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7683 (83)90041-0
Yang, J.; Luo, M.; Hua, Y. & Lu, G. Energy absorption of expansion tubes using a conical–cylindrical die: experiments and numerical simulation. Int. J. Mech. Sci., 2010, 52(5), 716-725. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2009.11.015
Huang, X.; Lu, G. & Yu, T.X. Energy absorption in splitting square metal tubes. Thin-Walled Struct., 2002, 40(2), 153-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-8231(01)00058-1
Reddy, T.Y. & Reid, S.R. Axial splitting of circular metal tubes. Int. J. Mech. Sci., 1986, 28(2), 111-131. https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7403(86)90018-4.
Aljawi, A.A. & Alghamdi, A.A. Inversion of frusta as impact energy absorbers. In Current Advances in Mechanical Design and Production VII, 2000, 1, 511-519. Pergamon Press New York. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-008043711-8/50052-0
Alghamdi, A.A; Aljawi, A.A, Abu-Mansour, T.M. & Mazi, R.A. Axial crushing of frusta between two parallel plates. In Structural Failure and Plasticity, Pergamon Press New York, 2000, 545-550.
Nagel, G.M. & Thambiratnam, D.P. Dynamic simulation and energy absorption of tapered thin-walled tubes under oblique impact loading. Int. J. Imp. Eng., 2006, 32(10), 1595-1620.
Nia, A.A. & Hamedani, J.H. Comparative analysis of energy absorption and deformations of thin walled tubes with various section geometries. Thin-Walled Struct., 2010, 48(12), 946-954. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2010.07.003
Hou, S.; Han, X.; Sun, G.; Long, S.; Li, W.; Yang, X. & Li, Q. Multiobjective optimization for tapered circular tubes. Thin-Walled Struct., 2011, 49(7), 855-863. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2011.02.010
Abramowicz, W. & Jones, N. Dynamic axial crushing of square tubes. Int. J. Imp. Eng., 1984, 2(2), 179-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/0734-743X(84)90005-8
Reid, S.R; Reddy, T.Y. & Gray, M.D. Static and dynamic axial crushing of foam-filled sheet metal tubes. Int. J. Mech. Sci., 1986, 28(5), 295-322. https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7403 (86)90043-3
Reddy, T.Y. & Al-Hassani, S.T. Axial crushing of wood-filled square metal tubes. Int. J. Mech. Sci., 1993, 35(3-4), 231-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7403(93)90078-9
Abbasi, M.; Reddy, S.; Ghafari, N.A. & Fard M. Multi-objective crashworthiness optimization of multi-cornered thin-walled sheet metal members. Thin-Walled Struct., 2015, 89, 31-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2014.12.009
Liu, W.; Lin, Z.; He, J.; Wang, N. & Deng, X. Crushing behavior and multi-objective optimization on the crashworthiness of sandwich structure with star-shaped tube in the center. Thin-Walled Struct., 2016, 108, 205-214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2016.08.021
Mahmoodi, A.; Shojaeefard, M.H. & Googarchin, H.S. Theoretical development and numerical investigation on energy absorption behavior of tapered multi-cell tubes. Thin-Walled Struct., 2016, 102, 98-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2016.01.019
Goel, M.D. Deformation, energy absorption and crushing behavior of single, double and multi-wall foam filled square and circular tubes. Thin-Walled Struct., 2015, 90, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2015.01.004
Najafi, A. & Rais, R.M. Mechanics of axial plastic collapse in multi-cell, multi-corner crush tubes. Thin-Walled Struct., 2011, 49(1),1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2010.07.002
Kavi, H.; Toksoy, A.K. & Guden, M. Predicting energy absorption in a foam-filled thin-walled aluminum tube based on experimentally determined strengthening coefficient. Mat. & Des., 2006, 27(4), 263-269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2004.10.024
Jones, N. & Birch, R.S. Dynamic and static axial crushing of axially stiffened square tubes. Proceedings of the Inst. Mech. Eng., Pt C: Mech. Eng. Sci., 1990, 204(5), 293-310. https://doi.org/10.1243/PIME_PROC_1990_204_110_02
Zhang, X. & Huh, H. Energy absorption of longitudinally grooved square tubes under axial compression. Thin-Walled Struct., 2009, 47(12), 1469-1477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2009.07.003
Eyvazian, A.; Habibi, M.K.; Hamouda, A.M. & Hedayati, R. Axial crushing behavior and energy absorption efficiency of corrugated tubes. Mat. Des., 2014, 54, 1028-1038. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2013.09.031
Zhang, Z.; Liu, S. & Tang, Z. Crashworthiness investigation of kagome honeycomb sandwich cylindrical column under axial crushing loads. Thin-Walled Struct., 2010, 48(1), 9-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2009.08.002
Yang, K.; Xu, S.; Zhou, S.; Shen, J. & Xie, Y.M. Design of dimpled tubular structures for energy absorption. Thin-Walled Struct., 2017, 112, 31-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2016.12.003
Zahran, M.S.; Xue, P. & Esa, M.S. Novel approach for design of 3D-multi-cell thin-walled circular tube to improve the energy absorption characteristics under axial impact loading. Int. J. Crash., 2017, 22(3), 294-306. https://doi.org/10.1080/13588265.2016.1258958
Esa, M.; Xue, P.; Zahran, M.; Abdelwahab, M. & Khalil, M. Novel strategy using crash tubes adaptor for damage levels manipulation and total weight reduction. Thin-Walled Struct., 2017, 111, 176-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2016.11.018
Xu, F.; Sun, G.; Li, G. & Li, Q. Experimental study on crashworthiness of tailor-welded blank (TWB) thin-walled high-strength steel (HSS) tubular structures. Thin-Walled Struct., 2014, 74, 12-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2013.08.021
Sun, F.; Lai, C. & Fan, H. In-plane compression behavior and energy absorption of hierarchical triangular lattice structures. Mat. Des., 2016, 100, 280-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2016.03.023
Mahdi, E.; Hamouda, A.A. & Sebaey, T.A. The effect of fiber orientation on the energy absorption capability of axially crushed composite tubes. Mat. Des. 2014, 56, 923-928. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2013.12.009
Kalhor, R. & Case, S.W. The effect of FRP thickness on energy absorption of metal-FRP square tubes subjected to axial compressive loading. Comp. Struct., 2015, 130, 44-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2015.04.009
Yan, L.; Chouw, N. & Jayaraman, K. Effect of triggering and polyurethane foam-filler on axial crushing of natural flax/epoxy composite tubes. Mat. Des., 2014, 56, 528-541. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2013.11.068
Boria, S.; Scattina, A. & Belingardi, G. Axial energy absorption of CFRP truncated cones. Comp. Struct., 2015, 130, 18-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2015.04.026
Wang, L.; Fan, X.; Chen, H. & Liu, W. Axial crush behavior and energy absorption capability of foam-filled GFRP tubes under elevated and high temperatures. Comp. Struct., 2016, 149, 339-350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2016.04.028
Dlugosch, M.; Fritsch, J.; Lukaszewicz, D. & Hiermaier, S. Experimental investigation and evaluation of numerical modeling approaches for hybrid-FRP-steel sections under impact loading for the application in automotive crash-structures. Comp. Struct., 2017, 174, 338-347. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2017.04.077
ABAQUS 6.14.3 Documentation, Dassault Systèmes Simulia Corp., Providence, RI, USA, 2014.
ASTM E8/E 8M-08, Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials, American Society for Testing Materials, 2008.
Where otherwise noted, the Articles on this site are licensed under Creative Commons License: CC Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 India