3D Localisation of Target using Elevation Angle Algorithm with the use of Ground Radars

  • Rachakonda G. Raju Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada - 533 003 https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1365-1067
  • Sudesh K. Kashyap Flight Mechanics and Control Division, CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories, Bengaluru - 560 017 https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4643-8572
Keywords: Angle of arrival, Time difference of arrival, Altitude determination from primary radars, Elevation angle algorithm, Optimisation, Levenberg-Marquardt


A new novel method based on elevation angle algorithm (EAA) is proposed in this paper, to obtain 3D position of target using range and azimuth measurements of two ground 2D radars. The EAA estimates optimal target elevation angle wrt contributing radar by solving a non-linear optimisation problem using Levenberg-Marquardt method in geo-centric frame such as earth-centred-earth-fixed. The target position in geodetic frame (WGS84) is then obtained using slant range, azimuth and estimated elevation angle. The proposed method is evaluated using simulated but realistic radar data and accuracy of estimated position is found to be comparable with true position (error within acceptable limit). The method is also evaluated with real data from actual ground 2D radars and estimated target position is found to be comparable with reference navigation data (GPS) on-board of target. For each radar, corresponding Extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used to handle noisy, asynchronous measurements and to provide estimated range and azimuth at common reference time for altitude estimation using proposed EAA method. In case of real data, the estimated altitude is found to be comparable GPS altitude with error less than 5 % of true altitude. From the study, it is found that EAA is suitable to estimate target position using measurements from only two contributing asynchronous 2D radars in real-time as compared to some other techniques such triangulation and Trilateration where at-least three radars are required to get the position of target. This method can be useful to utilise network of vintage long range 2D radars to determine target position and to fill the gap wherever/whenever target is out of detection range of 3D radars. In addition, EAA method is compared with commonly used methodology such range only localisation and results are presented.


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How to Cite
Raju, R., & Kashyap, S. (2020). 3D Localisation of Target using Elevation Angle Algorithm with the use of Ground Radars. Defence Science Journal, 70(3), 260-271. https://doi.org/10.14429/dsj.70.14277
Electronics & Communication Systems