Efficiency and Stiffness of the Single Lap Bolt Joints in Glass Epoxy Composites

  • Jaspreet Singh Mechanical Engineering Department, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala - 147 004
  • Kulwinder Singh Mechanical Engineering Department, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala - 147 004
  • J. S. Saini Mechanical Engineering Department, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala - 147 004
Keywords: Glass fiber, Bolt joint, Joint efficiency, Characteristic curve, Tsai-Wu failure theory

Abstract

The present work deals with the investigations on the joint efficiency and the joint stiffness of the single lap bolt joint made of two dimensional woven glass fibre reinforced composite materials. The effect of joint geometry, bolt pretension and washer has been determined on the bolt joint performance. To estimate the effect of geometric parameters; the edge-to-hole diameter (e/d) and width-to-hole diameter (w/d) ratios are varied from 3 to 4 and 3 to 5, respectively. To study the worst loading conditions; the bolt pre-tension is set to zero, whereas 5 Nm torque is applied to investigate the joint in fully clamped conditions. Two different sizes of washer i.e., the outer diameter of 12 mm and 16 mm have been studied to estimate the effect of the washer on failure load, joint stiffness, and joint efficiency. Progressive damage analysis has been performed on the single lap bolt joint. Characteristic curve method along with Tsai-Wu failure criteria has been used for the prediction of the failure loads and failure modes. The joint stiffness and the failure load of the joint are increased with the increase of w/d ratios. However, the joint efficiency was negatively influenced by w/d ratio.

Author Biographies

Jaspreet Singh, Mechanical Engineering Department, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala - 147 004

Mr Jaspreet Singh received his ME (Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing Engineering) from Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, Punjab. His research work involves analysis of mechanical joints prepared from polymer materials.

Kulwinder Singh, Mechanical Engineering Department, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala - 147 004

Mr Kulwinder Singh is pursuing his doctoral from Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, Punjab. His research work involves analysis of mechanical joints prepared from polymer nanocomposite materials.

J. S. Saini, Mechanical Engineering Department, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala - 147 004

Dr J.S. Saini is working as Associate Professor in Mechanical Engineering Department at Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala, Punjab. His specialisation is design and analysis. He has nearly 30 research papers in various journals and conferences. Presently he is working in the area of nano composites and their analysis.

References

McCarthy, M. ; Lawlor, V. P. ; Stanley, W. F. & McCarthy, C. T. Bolt-hole clearance effects and strength criteria in single-bolt, single-lap, composite bolted joints. Composites Science and Technology, 2002, 62, 1415-1431.

doi: 10.1016/S0266-3538(02)00088-X

Kweon, J. H. ; Ahn, H. S. & Choi, J. H. A new method to determine the characteristic lengths of composite joints without testing. Composite Structures, 2004, 66, 305-315.

doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2004.04.053

Xiao, Y. & Ishikawa, T. Bearing strength and failure behavior of bolted composite joints (part I: Experimental investigation). Composites Science and Technology, 2005, 65, 1022-1031.

doi: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2005.02.011

Xiao, Y. & Ishikawa, T. Bearing strength and failure behavior of bolted composite joints (part II: modeling and simulation). Composites science and Technology, 2005, 65, 1032-1043.

doi: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2004.12.049

Kelly, G. Quasi-static strength and fatigue life of hybrid (bonded/bolted) composite single-lap joints. Composite Structures, 2006, 72, 119-129.

doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2004.11.002

Khashaba, U. ; Sallam, H. E. M. ; Al-Shorbagy, A. E. & Seif, M. A. Effect of washer size and tightening torque on the performance of bolted joints in composite structures. Composite Structures, 2006, 73, 310-317.

doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2005.02.004

Nassar, S. A. ; Virupaksha, V. L. & Ganeshmurthy, S. Effect of bolt tightness on the behavior of composite joints. Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 2007, 129, 43-51.

doi: 10.1115/1.2389000

Sen, F. ; Pakdil, M. ; Sayman, O. & Benli, S. Experimental failure analysis of mechanically fastened joints with clearance in composite laminates under preload. Materials & Design, 2008, 29, 1159-1169.

doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2007.05.009

Asi, O. Effect of different woven linear densities on the bearing strength behaviour of glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites pinned joints. Composite Structures, 2009, 90, 43–52.

doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2009.01.007

Egan, B. ; McCarthy, C. T. ; McCarthy, M. A. & Frizzell, R. M. Stress analysis of single-bolt, single-lap, countersunk composite joints with variable bolt-hole clearance. Composite Structures, 2012, 94, 1038-1051.

doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2011.10.004

Irisarri, F. X. ; Laurin, F. ; Carrere, N. & Maire, J. F. Progressive damage and failure of mechanically fastened joints in CFRP laminates–Part I: Refined Finite Element modelling of single-fastener joints. Composite Structures, 2012, 94, 2269-2277.

doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2011.07.023

Qin, T. ; Zhao, L. & Zhang, J. Fastener effects on mechanical behaviors of double-lap composite joints. Composite Structures, 2013, 100, 413-423.

doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2013.01.008

Gray, P. ; O’Higgins, R. & McCarthy, C. Effects of laminate thickness, tapering and missing fasteners on the mechanical behaviour of single-lap, multi-bolt, countersunk composite joints. Composite Structures, 2014, 107, 219-230.

doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2013.07.017

Zhai, Y. ; Li, D. ; Li, X. ; Wang, L. & Yin, Y. An experimental study on the effect of bolt-hole clearance and bolt torque on single-lap, countersunk composite joints. Composite Structures, 2015, 127, 411-419.

doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2015.03.028

Sekhon, M. ; Saini, J. S. ; Singla, G. & Bhunia, H. Influence of nanoparticle fillers content on the bearing strength behavior of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites pin joints. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials Design and Applications, 2017, 231, 641-656.

doi: 10.1177/1464420715607556

Singh, S. ; Saini, J. S. & Bhunia, H. Investigation on failure modes for pin joints made from unidirectional glass–epoxy nanoclay laminates. Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, 2016, 39, 320-334.

doi: 10.1111/ffe.12358

Mara, V. ; Haghani, R. & Al-Emrani, M. Improving the performance of bolted joints in composite structures using metal inserts. Journal of Composite Materials, 2016, 50, 3001-3018.

doi: 10.1177/0021998315615204

Singh, K. ; Saini, J. S. & Bhunia, H. Effect of Metallic Inserts on the Strength of Pin Joints Prepared from Glass Fiber Reinforced Composites, Defence Science Journal, 2017, 67, 592-600.

doi : 10.14429/dsj.67.11041

Park, H. J. Effects of stacking sequence and clamping force on the bearing strengths of mechanically fastened joints in composite laminates. Composite structures, 2001, 53, 213-221.

doi: 10.1016/S0263-8223(01)00005-8

Chang, F. K. ; Scott, R. A. & Springer, G. S. Strength of mechanically fastened composite joints. Journal of Composite materials, 1982, 16, 470-494.

doi: 10.1177/002199838201600603

Tsai, S. W. & Wu, E. M. A general theory of strength for anisotropic materials. Journal of composite materials, 1971, 5, 58-80.

doi: 10.1177/002199837100500106

Published
2019-04-30
How to Cite
Singh, J., Singh, K., & Saini, J. (2019). Efficiency and Stiffness of the Single Lap Bolt Joints in Glass Epoxy Composites. Defence Science Journal, 69(3), 280-289. https://doi.org/10.14429/dsj.69.13348
Section
General Papers