Venous Thrombosis could be Gender Specific, Women Beware!
Venous thrombosis (VT) is the third major cause of mortality in the world after heart attack and stroke. Its two major clinical manifestations are deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) which are serious medical conditions but often remain under-diagnosed. Although rate of occurrence of venous thrombosis in men is slightly higher, a number of studies have pointed out that woman poses higher risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared to men at various stages of life. Risk of VTE increases in women’s life particularly with use of oral contraceptives, during pregnancy and with exogenous administration of hormones like in post-menopausal hormone therapy. Various reports show that these factors increase risk of DVT and PE by several folds. DVT is considered as an important cause of maternal death in western countries. It is often asymptomatic and its signs and symptoms are similar to those of normal pregnancy. The hormonal changes at various stages of life and less physical activity increase the risk of VTE by blood flow stasis. It is extremely important for women to know the stages of life when they are prone to develop VTE, about its prevention and treatment. Detailed studies on differences in clinical manifestations of VTE between men and women are lacking. This review focusses on assessing the increased risk of VTE and its prognosis in women based on available literature.
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