High altitude Provoked Thrombotic Complications
On rapid ascending to high-altitude particularly very high-altitude or extreme high-altitude, there is a risk of developing high-altitude illness and most people may experience acute mountain sickness which may further lead to potentially life-threatening pathologies like high-altitude pulmonary edema, high-altitude cerebral edema, high-altitude-induced thrombosis etc. if not treated on time. Hypercoagulability state associated with high-altitude which lead to the formation of a clot in the blood vessels, a condition called deep vein thrombosis, which may further complicate and lead to pulmonary embolism. Lack of epidemiological data poses a constraint in evaluating the actual incident rate of thromboembolic disorders at high-altitude. In the present scenario, the most commonly used diagnostic marker for thrombosis is the D-dimer test which has low specificity. Various anticoagulants are also available for anticoagulation therapy but they have their own limitation. Under this review, worldwide reported incidents and management strategies related to thrombotic complications are consolidated and presented. It also summarizes diagnostic and anticoagulation therapy regimes against thrombosis existing at present. Accurate diagnosis and therapeutics are a thrust area of further exploration and there is an urgent need to develop quick and advanced methods to reduce the mortality associated with this disorder especially with respect to high-altitude.
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