Interaction of Radiofrequency Radiation with Biological Systems A Comprehensive Update on Recent Challenges
Rapid advancement of radiofrequency (RF)-driven technologies has greatly affected our everyday lives. Increasing evidence led by in-vitro, in-vivo studies, epidemiological and clinical trials indicates that RF interacts considerably well with biological systems in various ways depending on different exposure parameters and properties of biological materials. Besides their innumerable benefits in different sectors of commercial and military fields, they can induce alterations in many physiological functions of the body, which may culminate into adverse human health consequences. The present article explicitly addresses the RF-based technologies and their applications, fundamentals of RF energy interaction with biological systems, exposure parameters, and dosimetry studies along with thermal and non-thermal effects on different vital organs at molecular and cellular levels. Further, this article outlines the limitations of RF-induced biological effect studies, status of risk assessment, safety levels and its future perspectives.
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