Isolation and Characterization of A Bacillus Phage from Equine Carcass Disposal Site
Bacteriophages play an important role in bacterial control in natural niche however a little is known about Bacillus sp. phages prevailing in cadaver affected soils. In the current study, the Bacillus sp. phage was isolated from the equine cadaver disposal site and characterised to gain an insight into the issue of role of phages in biological dynamics of manure thus formed over years. Firstly, the host bacterium was isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus group member as assessed by phylogenetic analysis and secondly it’s corresponding phage from same soil sample was also enriched and characterised. The phage (VTCCBPA38) was found to belong to family Myoviridae and was active within the temperature range of 4°C - 45°C. As assessed by biological sensitivity by spot test, the phage was active against 6/19 (31.6 %) Bacilli tested including Bacillus cereus from goat mastitis. Thus the phage
may find potential use in biocontrol of diseases caused by Bacillus sp. Furthermore, this report is valuable as the first study for investigation of Bacillus sp. phage in carcass burial sites.
Hendrix, R.W., Smith, M.C., Burns, R.N., Ford, M.E., Hatfull, G.F. Evolutionary relationships among diverse bacteriophages and prophages: All the world’s a phage. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1999, 96, 2192–2197.
Brüssow, H., Canchaya, C., Hardt, W.D. Phages and the evolution of bacterial pathogens: From genomic rearrangements to lysogenic conversion. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev., 2004, 68, 560–602.
Mavangira, V., Angelos, J.A., Samitz, E.M., Rowe, J.D., Byrne, B.A. Gangrenous mastitis caused by Bacillus species in six goats. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 2013, 242, 836-843.
Parkinson, T.J., Merrall, M., Fenwick, S.G. A case of bovine mastitis caused by Bacillus cereus. N. Z. Vet. J., 1999, 47, 151-152.
Ladrón, N., Fernández, M., Agüero, J., González, B., Vázquez-Boland, J.A., Navas, J. Rapid identification of Rhodococcus equi by a PCR assay targeting the choE gene. J. Clin. Microbiol., 2003, 41, 3241-3245.
Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stechter, G., Nei, M., Kumar, S. MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol. Biol. Evol., 2011, 28, 2731-2739.
Laemmli, U.K. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature, 1970, 227, 680-685.
Drewnowska, J.M. & Swiecicka, I. Eco-genetic structure of Bacillus cereus sensu lato populations from different environments in northeastern Poland. PLoS One, 2013, 8, e80175.
Laba, W. & Rodziewicz, A. Biodegradation of hard keratins by two bacillus strains. Jundishapur J. Microbiol., 2014, 7: e8896.
Anwar, M.S., Siddique, M.T., Verma, A., Rao, Y.R., Nailwal, T., Ansari, M., Pande, V. Multitrait plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacterial isolates from Brassica juncea rhizosphere: Keratin degradation and growth promotion. Commun. Integr. Biol., 2014, 7, e27683.
Singh, S.K., Tripathi, V.R., Jain, R.K., Vikram, S., Garg, S.K. An antibiotic, heavy metal resistant and halotolerant Bacillus cereus SIU1 and its thermoalkaline protease. Microb. Cell. Fact., 2010, 9,59.
Yilmaz, M., Soran, H., Beyatli, Y. Antimicrobial activities of some Bacillus spp. strains isolated from the soil. Microbiol. Res., 2006, 161, 127-131.
Weinbauer, M.G., Christen, R., Höfle, M.G. The response of Vibrio- and Rhodobacter-related populations of the NW Mediterranean Sea to additions of dissolved organic matter, phages, or dilution. Microb. Ecol., 2006, 51, 336-344.
Rohwer, F. Global phage diversity. Cell, 2003, 113:141.
Labrie, S.J., Samson, J.E., Moineau, S. Bacteriophage resistance mechanisms. Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 2010, 8, 317-327.
where otherwise noted, the Articles on this site are licensed under Creative Commons License: CC Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 India