Temporal Variations in Fungal Bioaerosols in Outdoor Environment: A Three Year Study at Four Different Locations in Gwalior, Central India

  • Pramod Kumar DRDO Defence Research & Development Establishment
  • Ajay Goel DRDO Defence Research & Development Establishment
Keywords: Airborne fungi, temperature, humidity, wind speed, seasonal distribution


Abstract Airborne fungi may cause a variety of health problems in human and animals. In this study, a survey of fungal bioaerosols was done for three years during 2007-2009 in Central India. Air samples were collected from four different locations at Gwalior, Central India on monthly basis. Results showed that fungal bioaerosols concentration
ranged from 550 to 7363 CFU/m3 at different sites. Significant higher bioaerosols content was observed during the year 2008 and 2009 than 2007. Highest mean fungal concentration (2687.86 CFU/m3) was found at a public garden, whereas lowest mean concentration (1722.72 CFU/m3) was observed at civil hospital. A seasonal rhythm was observed in the level of airborne fungi. Maximal fungal count was observed in winter followed by monsoon and lowest in summers. Among meteorological factors, statistically significant negative correlation was found with temperature and wind speed. During the study, a total of 41 fungal species belonging to 21 genera were identified. Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phoma and Trichothecium were the dominated genera. Several identified fungal species viz. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger,
Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Fusarium moniliforme, Trichoderma harzianum and Rhizopus stolonifer from the studied area are well known for causing allergy or production of mycotoxin.

Author Biographies

Pramod Kumar, DRDO Defence Research & Development Establishment

Dr Pramod Kumar received his Ph.D. (Biotechnology) from Jiwaji University, Gwalior in in 2010. He worked as CSIRSenior
Research Fellow at DRDE, Gwalior from 2007-2010. Subsequently, he joined as a CSIR-Senior Research Associate (Scientist Pool) at National Centre for Disease Control, New Delhi. His research focused on mechanism of antimicrobial
resistance and virulence in microbes. Presently, he is working as Scientist-III at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

Ajay Goel, DRDO Defence Research & Development Establishment

Dr Ajay Kumar Goel received his PhD (Microbiology) from CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, in 1999. Currently  working as a Scientist ‘F’ and Head, Bioprocess Technology Division, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior. He has more than 90 research papers, 6 patents, radio talks, and several overseas presentations to his credit. His current interests include : Development of detection and protection systems for potential biothreat agents.


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How to Cite
Kumar, P., & Goel, A. (2018). Temporal Variations in Fungal Bioaerosols in Outdoor Environment: A Three Year Study at Four Different Locations in Gwalior, Central India. Defence Life Science Journal, 4(1), 76-81. https://doi.org/10.14429/dlsj.4.12537
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