Phytoremediation and Nanoremediation : Emerging Techniques for Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage Water
Drainage from mining sites containing sulfur bearing rocks is known as acid mine drainage (AMD). Acid mine drainage water is a serious environmental pollutant that has its effects on plants, animals and microflora of a region. Mine water drainage mainly occurs due to anthropogenic activities like mining that leave the sulfur bearing rocks exposed. This drainage water poses as a potent soil, water and ground water pollutant. Although a lot of remediation measures have been implemented in the past but, none of them have been able to solve the problem completely. This review intends to focus on new emerging and better techniques in the form of phytoremediation and nanoremediation for treatment of acid mine drainage water. Besides, the review also gives more importance to the phytoremediation technique over nanoremediation because of the cost effectiveness and eco-friendly nature of the first and the nascent status of the latter. A hypothetical model discussing the use of hyperaccumulator plants in remediation of acid mine water has been proposed. The model also proposes natural induction of the phytoremedial ability of the plants involved in the remediation process. The proposed model assisted by inputs from further research, may be helpful in proper treatment of acid mine drainage water in the near future.
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