Breast Cancer Metastasis: Role of Tumor Microenvironment and Resident Macropahges
Keywords: Macrophages, matrix metallo proteinases, extra cellular matrix, tumor microenvironment, cytokine
AbstractMetastatic breast cancer is a stage of breast cancer wherever the disease has spread to distant parts of the body. Onset of metastasis is one of the biggest obstacles to the successful treatment of cancer. The potential of a tumor cell to metastasize profoundly depends on its microenvironment, or “niche” interactions with local components. Macrophages provide tropic support to tumors. Resident macrophages contribute a set of common functions, including their capability to defend against microbial infections, to maintain normal cell turnover and tissue remodelling, and to help repair sites of injury. Macrophages are recruited into the tumor microenvironment where they differentiate to become Tumor-associated-macrophages (TAMs). TAMs are the most abundant subpopulation of tumor-stroma and actively drive cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Cancer metastasis is not solely regulated by the deregulation of metastasis promoting or suppressing genes in cancer cells. Recently the interaction between the stromal cells and cancer cells has been demonstrated to promote cancer metastasis. TAMs can advocate epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer cells. Loss of e-cadherin, a major phenomenon of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), reduces adhesiveness and releases cancer cells to distant (secondary) sites. A positive correlation between tumor progression and the expression of matrix metallo proteinases (MMPs) in tumor tissues has been demonstrated in numerous human and animal studies. The dynamic interactions of cancer-cells with TAMs actively promote invasion-metastasis cascade through intercellular-signalling-networks that need better elucidation.
How to Cite
Baghel, K., & Bhadauria, S. (2016). Breast Cancer Metastasis: Role of Tumor Microenvironment and Resident Macropahges. Defence Life Science Journal, 1(1), 48-56. https://doi.org/10.14429/dlsj.1.10058
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