Defence Life Science Journal <table style="height: 526px;" border="0" width="742" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" width="248"> <p class="p1"><img src="/ojs/public/site/images/bhushan/DLSJ_Jan_19.jpg"></p> <p class="p1">pISSN: 2456-379X eISSN: 2456-0537</p> <p><strong>Member of&nbsp;<a title="CrossRef" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a title="CrossCheck" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossCheck</a></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Annual Print Subscription of DLSJ for 2019</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Subscribers &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;Inland &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Foreign&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p>Institution: &nbsp;&nbsp; Rs &nbsp;1,500.00/-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US $ 200.00/-</p> <p><em><strong>(Discounts: 15 % for distributors/vendors; 30 % for individuals)</strong></em><br>Contact:&nbsp;<br>Phone: 011-2390 2612, 011-2390 2422&nbsp;<br>Fax: 011-23813465,&nbsp;23819151&nbsp;</p> <p>E-mail:,&nbsp;</p> </td> <td valign="top" width="277"> <p><strong>About the Journal</strong><br>Defence Life Science Journal has been conceptualised to cater the needs of scientists, researchers, academicians of life sciences and allied disciplines.</p> <p class="p1">• Editorial Board is represented by eminent academicians, scientists from India and Abroad</p> <p class="p1">• Publishes research articles in the disciplines of biotechnology, bio-medicine, bio-engineering, bio-electronics, non-invasive life imaging, pharmacology and toxicology, physiology, NBC warfare, food technology, and psychology.</p> <p class="p1">• Journal upholds the highest standards of editorial integrity, including disclosure and independent peer review. Publishing process is reassuringly rigorous, with a minimum of three experts reviewer</p> <p class="style2"><span class="style2"><strong>Article Processing or Publication Fee</strong>&nbsp;: Nil<br>(No fee is charged for publication in Defence Life Science Journal)<br><strong><em>(Institutionally Supported)</em></strong>&nbsp;</span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> en-US <p>where otherwise noted, the Articles on this site are licensed under&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons</a>&nbsp;License: CC&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 India</a></p> (Sudhanshu Bhushan) (Shiv Shambhu Upadhyay) Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Biofuels for Defence Use: Past, Present And Future <p>Defence sector desires to attain energy self-sufficiency and security. In recent years, emergence of biofuel as an alternative source has raised the hopes of Defence. Ethanol and bio-diesel are currently being used as blends in different parts of the world. While, bio-diesel is mostly being blended in 2-20% in different parts of the world, ethanol blending has reached upto 85%. Owing to the sustainability reasons, the choice of feedstock for ethanol production is gradually changing from corn to lignocelluloses biomass. Jatropha curcas, is still the choice feedstock<br />for bio-diesel in most third world countries. This institute has put in rigrous efforts to identify high yielding varieties of Jatropha, improving its yield, standardizing trans-esterification to obtain high quality bio-diesel and its trials and testing in various vehicles and equipment. Second generation biofuels using biomass such as farm and forest wastes as feedstocks are promising in terms of their overall sustainability and volume produced. They can be used as drop in fuels. However, time is required to utilize their potential fully. Algae, the third generation biofuel feedstock still needs extensive R&amp;D to make it economically sustainable. Whatever, the technology used, defence forces will accept any biofuel, which should be available constantly and priced below the existing petroleum fuels. The scope of producing by-products and finding a lucarative market for these products can ensure that prices of<br />biofuels remain lower than the petroleum fuels</p> Atul Grover, Lekha Charan Meher, Ranjit Singh, Abhinav Singh, Sudhanshu Tiwari, Sanjai Kumar Dwivedi, Madhu Bala ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Advances in Rapid Detection and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests: A Review <p>The rise of antibiotic resistance is an emerging problem of the millennium. Clinical microbiology plays an important role in combating the problem by facilitating diagnostics and therapeutics thus managing infection in patients. Diagnostic failures are a major limiting factor during bacterial infection that causes inappropriate use of antibiotics, delay in start up of treatment and decrease in the survival rate during septic conditions. Thus rapid and reliable detection is highly relevant during such bacterial infections and also at the time of disease outbreak as many such pathogens can be used as biothreat agents or bioweapons affecting human health and posing risk to national security. This review highlights the importance of various methods for fast pathogen detection and antimicrobial susceptibility determination. These methods have the potential to provide very precise and rapid ways for bacterial screening and identifying the correct antibiotics to cure infection</p> Priyanka Mishra, Kamla Prasad Mishra, Divya Singh, Lilly Ganju, Bhuvnesh Kumar, Shashi Bala Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Heat Induced Oxidative Stress and Aberrations in Liver Function Leading to Hepatic Injury in Rats <p>Exposure to heat stress (HS) elicits systemic and cellular response in experimental animals and humans. The current study was undertaken to determine the effect of HS on liver microstructure and function in rats. A heat simulation chamber with ambient temperature (Ta) 45 ± 0.5 °C and relative humidity (RH) 30 ± 5 per cent was used to expose animals to HS. Rats were categorised as moderately heat stressed (MHS, Tc = 40 °C) and severely heat stressed (SHS, Tc = 42 °C) group. We observed that with rise in core temperature (Tc) alanine aminotransferase<br />(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were increased but glucose level was decreased in both plasma and liver tissue. Significantly elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were detected in liver of MHS and SHS animals. Additionally, glutathione disulfide and glutathione (GSSG and GSH) ratio was found to be increased with rise in Tc which suggested saturation in antioxidant capacity of tissue. Furthermore, levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and caspases were upregulated upon HS. Results of histological examination indicated extensive loss of cells in liver parenchyma leading to disorganisation of lobular structure. Thus, biochemical and histological studies in experimental animals demonstrates that HS may severely altered structural and biochemical functions of liver.</p> Avinash Gupta, Nishant Ranjan Chauhan, Ajeet Singh, Daipayan Chowdhury, Ramesh Chand Meena, Amitabha Chakrabarti, Lilly Ganju, Bhuvnesh Kumar, Shashi Bala Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation of Stature from Different Anthropometric Measurements of Gorkha Soldiers <p>Stature is one of the most important elements in the identification of a person. Many different anthropometric dimensions can be used in the estimation of stature. Establishing the identity of an individual from body fragments has become an important necessity in recent times due to natural and man-made disasters. This study was performed on 226 Gurung soldiers of Gorkha regiment of Indian Army. The studied soldier’s age range was 18 years - 48 years. Six anthropometric measurements (Stature, Hand length, Arm length, Standing knee height, Foot length and Leg length) were measured and stature is estimated with the help of these measurements.There was no significant difference between actual and estimated stature. All anthropometric measurements were highly correlated with stature at significance level p&lt; 0.001 but leg length had better correlation (r=0.816) compared to other variables. Stature<br />can be estimated with the help of standing knee height (r=0.686, p&lt;0.001) and arm length (r=0.653, p&lt;0.001). It can be concluded that leg length was a very good predictor of stature estimation for the studied population.</p> Inderjeet Singh, Lalhmunlien Robert Varte, Shweta Rawat ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Cell Permeabilisation, Microstructure and Quality of Dehydrated Apple Slices Treated with Pulsed Electric Field During Blanching <p align="center"><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p><p>Effect of pulsed electric field as a blanching pretreatment on cell permeabilization, microstructure and quality of dehydrated apple slices was studied. Apple slices were pulsed electric field pretreated (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kV/cm using 25 and 75 pulses) at a temperature of 60 and 80°C in water followed by dehydration at 60°C in a cabinet dryer. Cell disintegration index was found to increase significantly (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) with increase in the electric field strength, number of pulses and blanching temperature and thereby reducing the drying time. The dehydrated slices showed lower hardness and higher lightness (<em>L</em>*) values for the samples treated at higher electric field strength for longer durations. Scanning electron microscopic studies of samples revealed better retention of cellular integrity when pre-treated at a low level of PEF (1.0 kV/cm using 25 pulses) and blanched at low temperature (60°C). However, the samples treated to a level of 1.5 kV/cm and 75 pulses of PEF with subsequent blanching temperature 80°C was found to yield optimum cell permeabilization. The study suggests that PEF can be used as an effective blanching pretreatment for achieve good quality dehydrated apple slices in less drying time.</p><p> </p> Om Prakash Chauhan, Shima Shayanfar, Stefan Topefl ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 HPLC-UV Quantitative Analysis of Acrylamide in Snack Foods of India <p>An investigation was carried out to determine acrylamide content in 51 popular snacks food of India by using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Instrument with UV detection method. The method entails acetone extraction of acrylamide, clean up by solid extraction cartridges, isocratic elution with mobile phase of HPLC grade water, acetonitrile and formic acid followed by detection at 210 nm. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for this method were 5.12 and 17.08 μg/kg, respectively. The mean recoveries of acrylamide obtained by using spiked samples ranged from 91 per cent to 101.33 per cent. Acrylamide concentrations in the five groups of snacks ranged from 788.99 - 4191.82 μg/ for extruded and deep fat fried snack, 372 to 6391μg/ kg for deep fat fried food, 435-3147μg/kg for baked food, 434-1307 μg/kg for breakfast cereal and 471-1520 μg/kg for other snacks. Among the food products, snack foods purchased from unorganised sector showed highest concentration of acrylamide.</p> Pal Murugan Muthaiah, Agathian Govindaswamy, Anil Dutt Semwal, Gopal Kumar Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Germination on Nutritional, Antinutritional and Rheological Characteristics of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) <p>White and red varieties of quinoa were germinated and studied for the changes in nutritional, anti-nutritional and rheological characteristics. Germination has significantly (p≤0.05) enhanced protein and crude fibre with the significant (p≤0.05) reduction in carbohydrate contents in both the varieties. Anti-nutritional factor like phytic acid was decreased by 8.56 and 18.80 units in white and red varieties respectively. Total phenols, total flavonoids enhanced significantly (p≤0.05) in both the varieties, showing more in red variety exhibiting comparatively higher antioxidant activity. After 48 hr of germination, vitamin ‘C’ in both the varieties enhanced between the range of 10.56 and 13.23 mg/100g. Linoleic acid was the major fatty acid identified in both the varieties constituting more than 50 per cent of total fatty acids. Germination has reduced linoleic, linolenic and palmitic acids with the increase in stearic and oleic acids. Germination also caused significant (p≤0.05) decrement in breakdown, set back and final viscosities in both the varieties without much affecting their pasting temperature.</p> Ananthan Padmashree, Neha Negi, Sheetal Handu, Mohammed Ayub Khan, Anil Dutt Semwal, Gopal Kumar Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and Characterization of A Bacillus Phage from Equine Carcass Disposal Site <p>Bacteriophages play an important role in bacterial control in natural niche however a little is known about Bacillus sp. phages prevailing in cadaver affected soils. In the current study, the Bacillus sp. phage was isolated from the equine cadaver disposal site and characterised to gain an insight into the issue of role of phages in biological dynamics of manure thus formed over years. Firstly, the host bacterium was isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus group member as assessed by phylogenetic analysis and secondly it’s corresponding phage from same soil sample was also enriched and characterised. The phage (VTCCBPA38) was found to belong to family Myoviridae and was active within the temperature range of 4°C - 45°C. As assessed by biological sensitivity by spot test, the phage was active against 6/19 (31.6 %) Bacilli tested including Bacillus cereus from goat mastitis. Thus the phage<br />may find potential use in biocontrol of diseases caused by Bacillus sp. Furthermore, this report is valuable as the first study for investigation of Bacillus sp. phage in carcass burial sites.</p> Taruna Anand, Nitin Virmani, Rajesh Kumar Vaid, Bidhan Chandra Bera, Umang Ahlawat, Bhupendra Nath Tripathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Image Automatic Categorisation using Selected Features Attained from Integrated Non-Subsampled Contourlet with Multiphase Level Sets <em>A framework of automatic detection and categorization of Breast Cancer (BC) biopsy images utilizing significant interpretable features is initially considered in discussed work. Appropriate efficient techniques are engaged in layout steps of the discussed framework. Different steps include 1.To emphasize the edge particulars of tissue structure; the distinguished Non-Subsampled Contourlet (NSC) transform is implemented. 2. For the demarcation of cells from background, k-means, Adaptive Size Marker Controlled Watershed, two proposed integrated methodologies were discussed. Proposed Method-II, an integrated approach of NSC and Multiphase Level Sets is preferred to other segmentation practices as it proves better performance 3. In feature extraction phase, extracted 13 shape morphology, 33 textural (includes 6 histogram, 22 Haralick’s, 3 Tamura’s, 2 Graylevel Run-Length Matrix,) and 2 intensity features from partitioned tissue images for 96 trained images</em> Rajyalakshmi Uppada, Koteswara Rao Sanagapallela, Satya Prasad Kodati ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Temporal Variations in Fungal Bioaerosols in Outdoor Environment: A Three Year Study at Four Different Locations in Gwalior, Central India <p>Abstract Airborne fungi may cause a variety of health problems in human and animals. In this study, a survey of fungal bioaerosols was done for three years during 2007-2009 in Central India. Air samples were collected from four different locations at Gwalior, Central India on monthly basis. Results showed that fungal bioaerosols concentration<br />ranged from 550 to 7363 CFU/m3 at different sites. Significant higher bioaerosols content was observed during the year 2008 and 2009 than 2007. Highest mean fungal concentration (2687.86 CFU/m3) was found at a public garden, whereas lowest mean concentration (1722.72 CFU/m3) was observed at civil hospital. A seasonal rhythm was observed in the level of airborne fungi. Maximal fungal count was observed in winter followed by monsoon and lowest in summers. Among meteorological factors, statistically significant negative correlation was found with temperature and wind speed. During the study, a total of 41 fungal species belonging to 21 genera were identified. Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phoma and Trichothecium were the dominated genera. Several identified fungal species viz. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger,<br />Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Fusarium moniliforme, Trichoderma harzianum and Rhizopus stolonifer from the studied area are well known for causing allergy or production of mycotoxin.</p> Pramod Kumar, Ajay Goel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000