Defence Life Science Journal 2019-04-11T13:53:18+00:00 Sudhanshu Bhushan Open Journal Systems <table style="height: 526px;" border="0" width="742" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" width="248"> <p class="p1"><img src="/ojs/public/site/images/bhushan/DLSJ_Jan_19.jpg"></p> <p class="p1">pISSN: 2456-379X eISSN: 2456-0537</p> <p><strong>Member of&nbsp;<a title="CrossRef" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<a title="CrossCheck" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CrossCheck</a></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Annual Print Subscription of DLSJ for 2019</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Subscribers &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;Inland &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Foreign&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p>Institution: &nbsp;&nbsp; Rs &nbsp;1,500.00/-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; US $ 200.00/-</p> <p><em><strong>(Discounts: 15 % for distributors/vendors; 30 % for individuals)</strong></em><br>Contact:&nbsp;<br>Phone: 011-2390 2612, 011-2390 2422&nbsp;<br>Fax: 011-23813465,&nbsp;23819151&nbsp;</p> <p>E-mail:,&nbsp;</p> </td> <td valign="top" width="277"> <p><strong>About the Journal</strong><br>Defence Life Science Journal has been conceptualised to cater the needs of scientists, researchers, academicians of life sciences and allied disciplines.</p> <p class="p1">• Editorial Board is represented by eminent academicians, scientists from India and Abroad</p> <p class="p1">• Publishes research articles in the disciplines of biotechnology, bio-medicine, bio-engineering, bio-electronics, non-invasive life imaging, pharmacology and toxicology, physiology, NBC warfare, food technology, and psychology.</p> <p class="p1">• Journal upholds the highest standards of editorial integrity, including disclosure and independent peer review. Publishing process is reassuringly rigorous, with a minimum of three experts reviewer</p> <p class="style2"><span class="style2"><strong>Article Processing or Publication Fee</strong>&nbsp;: Nil<br>(No fee is charged for publication in Defence Life Science Journal)<br><strong><em>(Institutionally Supported)</em></strong>&nbsp;</span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Interaction of Radiofrequency Radiation with Biological Systems A Comprehensive Update on Recent Challenges 2019-04-11T13:53:15+00:00 Saurabh Verma Asheesh Gupta Bhuvnesh Kumar <p>Rapid advancement of radiofrequency (RF)-driven technologies has greatly affected our everyday lives. Increasing evidence led by in-vitro, in-vivo studies, epidemiological and clinical trials indicates that RF interacts considerably well with biological systems in various ways depending on different exposure parameters and properties of biological materials. Besides their innumerable benefits in different sectors of commercial and military fields, they can induce alterations in many physiological functions of the body, which may culminate into adverse human health consequences. The present article explicitly addresses the RF-based technologies and their applications, fundamentals of RF energy interaction with biological systems, exposure parameters, and dosimetry studies along with thermal and non-thermal effects on different vital organs at molecular and cellular levels. Further, this article outlines the limitations of RF-induced biological effect studies, status of risk assessment, safety levels and its future perspectives.</p> 2019-04-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physico Chemical and Microbial Analysis of Different Sources of Water collected from Indora, Himachal Pradesh, India 2019-04-11T13:53:16+00:00 Shivali Bhardwaj Arup Giri <p>Life could not be imagining without the presence of water on this earth. An ecosystem is very dependent on the quality of water. Regular water quality monitoring is very essential of a region. In the study area, no study has been yet done on the quality of drinking water and productivity level of Beas river near Arni University, Himachal Pradesh, India. The main aim of this study was to determine the water quality of three different sources of water like hand pump water, tap water, and Beas river water. For this, we have collected total twenty-six samples in the month of May 2018 and analysed for pH, TDS, EC, DO, alkalinity, phenolphthalein alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, carbonate, bicarbonate, E. coli, and productivity level by standard methods. The entire analysed parameters showed the lower level than the permissible guideline of the WHO except for the presence of E. coli and higher level of alkalinity. The productivity level of Beas river was indicating that trophic index belonged to the ultra-oligotrophic. From the findings, it might be concluded that hand pump water, tap water, and Beas river water was drinkable except the presence of E. coli and higher level of alkalinity in tap water and river water. However, in the case of the productivity level of Beas river was indicating the very low accumulation of dissolved nutrient salts, and a lower rate of algae growth as the productivity level belonged to the ultra-oligotrophic. Further extensive study on the water minerals and heavy metals level in all the water sources are required in this study area.</p> 2019-04-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Synthesis of 2, 5 Dimethyl Furan from Renewable Lignocellulosic Biomass 2019-04-11T13:53:16+00:00 Neha Sharma Lekha Charan Meher Krishna Chandra Mitesh Mittal Sanjai Kumar Dwivedi Madhu Bala <p>Renewable biomass resources could reduce the dependency on the fossil fuels by conversion of its lignocellulose into bio-fuels and other valuable chemicals. Depolymerisation of lignocellulose, hydrolysis of cellulose to monomer glucose and its subsequent dehydration results 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). HMF is an important platform chemical for fuels and various other applications. The hydrogenation of HMF results 2, 5-dimethylfuran (DMF), which may be a biofuel with 40 per cent greater energy density than that of ethanol. The homogeneous catalytic method is preferred for lignocellulosic biomass conversion to cellulose, its hydrolysis and further dehydration to HMF. The Cu-Ru/C and related catalysts are preferred for hydrogenation of HMD to 2, 5-dimethylfuran. This review is an attempt to summarise the current research and developments in the field of lignocellulose derived HMF and further conversion to DMF as a potential biofuel.</p> 2019-04-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Passive Solar Greenhouse for Round The Year Vegetable Cultivation in Trans Himalayan Ladakh Region, India 2019-04-11T13:53:16+00:00 Phunchok Angmo Tsering Dolma Desyong Namgail Tsewang Tamchos Tsewang Norbu O. P. Chaurasia Tsering Stobdan <p>The trans-Himalayan Ladakh region remains cut-off for over six months in a year due to heavy snowfall. Availability of locally grown fresh vegetables is restricted to summer months and therefore, there are seasonal differences in dietary intake of food. Passive solar greenhouse has played a significant role not only in production of leafy vegetables in sub-zero temperature during winter months but also helped in extending the growing season in Ladakh. It is now a common practice to raise vegetable nurseries in spring and grow leafy vegetables during winter months in the greenhouse. Each year an average of 733 greenhouses covering 44313.4 m2 area are being established in Leh district. Passive solar greenhouse structures such as Ladakhi greenhouse, trench, polytrench, polyench, polycarbonate, FRP and polynet have been designed and tested in the inhospitable environment of trans–Himalaya. The greenhouse is used mainly during winter, and majority of farmers (91.7 %) do not use the structures in summer. Insect-pest, irrigation in winter and frequent replacement of cladding materials are the major problems being faced by the farmers in the region. There is a need to improvise the greenhouse design to make it economically viable and technologically feasible to grow a variety of crops, especially during winter months.</p> 2019-04-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Critical Thinking on Cognitive Enhancement 2019-04-11T13:53:17+00:00 Gurpreet Kaur Soumi Awasthy Usama Ghayas Syed <div> <div> <p>Cognitive abilities refer to brain based skills that are required to carry out any task ranging from the simplest to the most complex. Since these skills play a significant role in our day to day activities, efforts are being made by researchers for their further enhancement. The objective of the present study was to investigate if these abilities can be enhanced through a training module on critical thinking. Critical thinking involves something more than cognitive skills. Critical thinking is not static but a constantly evolving process and even more crucial in a military environment. This study consists of certain activities which are designed in such a manner that the solution of it can be generated through critical thinking. These activities were administered on 36 participants (20 male, 16 female). Each Participant’s baseline cognitive performance was assessed after which training was given to them in the form of different critical thinking activities followed by post assessment of cognitive abilities. Paired sample t - test was used which showed that There was a significant difference in the cognitive performance post critical thinking activities.</p> </div> </div> 2019-04-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nutritional Intervention during Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear Environments A Dietary Perspective 2019-04-11T13:53:17+00:00 Dev Kumar Yadav Janifer Raj Xavier Om Prakash Chauhan Prakash Eknath Patki Rakesh Kumar Sharma <p>The future war scenario is based on use and applications of various conventional and non-convectional agents which includes weaponised or non-weaponised chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear (CBRN), toxic industrial materials, direct energy devices/ weapons, and or high yield explosives. These include nerve agents, blood agents, vesicants or skin blistering agents, lung irritants, asphyxiants or choking agents. Biological weapons are basically disease causing microorganisms and other replicating entities including viruses, infectious nucleic acids and prions. These agents have ability to infect host and are highly virulent, pathogenic and dangerous in nature. The interface between ammunitions and above agents is soldier whose physical and mental health is affected as enough precautionary measures are not adopted. The reducing environment thus created has various agents which enter into exposed body and lead to mild to serious damage to various vital parts of the human body. As food is important component for survival and intrinsic to basic human nutrition and health, therefore, it is imperative to develop certain kind of a wholesome meal system which can be consumed by the soldiers tasked with combating CBRN situations during such operations. Such meals can be in the form of solid or liquid type and packaged in suitable delivery system, compatible and amenable with the CBRN suit. Food can be contaminated during CBRN conditions by coming in direct or indirect contact with CBRN agents. Therefore, the food materials to be used under such conditions need to be protected in suitable coverings as consumption of contaminated food can be lethal. Designer meal for CBRN environment is not only suitable for soldiers but also to all human interface dealing with similar scenario viz. the low intensity conflicts and surgical operations, nuclear submarines, cosmonauts, pilots, individuals handling radiation equipment and patient undergoing chemotherapy for cancer.</p> 2019-04-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Optimisation and Evaluation of Ricebean (Vigna Umbellata) Extrusion Process for Downstream Food Processability 2019-04-11T13:53:17+00:00 Rejaul Hoque Bepary D. D. Wadikar C. R. Vasudish A. D. Semwal G. K. Sharma <p>Ricebean(Vigna umbellata), a native bean of North-Eastern part of India has not been explored fully for development of convenience foods although it is loaded with various vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, phytochemicals and bioactive compounds. The effect of extrusion parameters namely moisture content, barrel temperature and screw speed on expansion ratio, extrudate density, and breaking strength was investigated by using response surface methodology. It was observed that moisture content of flour had significant (p&lt;0.05) affect on expansion ratio, extrudate density, and breaking strength of extrudates. The optimal combination of process parameters which resulted in extrudates with maximum expansion ratio but minimum extrudate density and breaking strength were 15 per cent moisture content, 110°C barrel temperature and 350 rpm screw speed. The value of water absorption index, water solubility index, swelling power, oil absorption index, bulk density, true density and colour for optimally extruded ricebean flour (OEF) was found significantly different (p&lt;0.05) whereas value of proximate parameters were insignificant (P&gt;0.05) than the native flour. The OEF was used for different downstream processings such as papadability, friability, steamability, cakeability, gravyability and porridgability and compared with that of native flour for their process quality parameters. The cake prepared with OEF had significantly (p&lt;0.05) less baking time (25 min) than the cake of native ricebean flour (35 min). However, consistency and over all acceptability (OAA) of porridge from OEF was found significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher than porridge of native ricebean flour. Hierarchical cluster analysis on OAA showed that porridgability and cakeability were most influential downstream processes</p> 2019-04-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mathematical Modelling the Drying Kinetics of Beetroot Strips during Convective Drying at Different Temperatures 2019-04-11T13:53:18+00:00 S. S. Manjunatha P. S. Raju <p>The thin layer drying of beetroot strips was evaluated at drying temperatures from 60 °C to 90 °C using convective dryer at inlet air velocity of 1.0 m/s. The different drying models were tested to evaluate the drying characteristics of beetroot strips. The investigations showed that Page’s and modified Page’s equations were satisfactorily describing the drying behaviour of beetroot strips during convective drying with appreciable high correlation coefficient (0.9971&lt;r&lt;0.9990) with low error values. The effective moisture diffusivity was increased from 3.563 x 10-10 m2/s to 8.038 x 10-10 m2/s with increase in drying temperature. The temperature dependency of effective moisture diffusivity was described by Arrhenius equation and activation energy for moisture diffusivity was 30.08 KJ/mol. The drying kinetic coefficients were significantly (p&lt;0.05) affected by drying air temperature. The exponents of models were decreased linearly with drying air temperature during drying of beetroot strips. The equilibrium moisture content was markedly affected by drying air temperature and it decreased linearly with drying air temperature. The results were very useful in standardisation and optimisation of drying process of beetroot strips in large scale commercial production.</p> 2019-04-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##