Ballistic Studies on TiB2-Ti Functionally Graded Armor Ceramics

Neha Gupta, Bikramjit Basu, V.V Bhanu Prasad, Madhu Vemuri


The objective of this paper is to discuss the results of the ballistic testing of the spark plasma sintered TiB2-Ti based functionally graded materials (FGMs) with an aim to assess their performance in defeating small-calibre armor piercing projectiles. We studied the efficacy of FGM design and compared its ballistic properties with those of TiB2-based composites as well as other competing ceramic armors. The ballistic properties are critically analyzed in terms of depth of penetration, ballistic efficiency, fractographs of fractured surfaces as well as quantification of the shattered ceramic fragments. It was found that all the investigated ceramic compositions exhibit ballistic efficiency (η) of 5.1 -5.9. We also found that by increasing the thickness of FGM from 5mm to 7.8 mm, the ballistic property of the composite degraded. On comparing the results with available armor systems, it has been concluded that TiB2 based composites show better ballistic properties except B4C. SEM analysis of the fragments showed that the FGM fractured by mixed mode of failure.

Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(6), pp.382-389, DOI:


TiB2-Ti FGM; SPS; depth of penetration; ballistic efficiency; fractography


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