| || Production Technology of Lead Zirconate Titanate Type-4 Spherical Elements for Underwater Transducers
Author : Namboodiri, M.P.S. ;Ekbote, S.B. ;Dhami, G.S.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:41(4) ; 1991 ; pp 399-408
Subject : 621.38 Electronics
Keywords : Zirconate titanate ;Spherical machining ;Electromechanical properties
Abstract : The paper describes the production technology evolved for the fabrication of 60 mm hollow spherical elements from lead zirconate titanate type-4 material, suitable for use in the manufacture of underwater omnidirectional transducers. It covers the characteristics of the starting powder, techniques of isostatic pressing, precision spherical machining, sintering to produce dielectrically sound, distortion-free hemispheres to the required physical dimensions, electroding, poling to achieve the inherent electromechanical properties, adhesive bonding of hemispheres and evaluation of ultimate dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the spheres.