| || Transmission Loss Variability Associated with Upwelling and Downwelling Off the Southwest Coast of India
Author : Kumar, P.V. Hareesh;Radhakrishnan, K.G.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:60(5) ; 2010 ; pp 476-482
Subject : 62 Engineering;53 Applied Physics;Defence Science Journal
Keywords : Transmission loss;upwelling process;downwelling process;acoustic propagation model;upslope propagation;downslope propagation;bathymetry
Abstract : Fine resolution spatial survey carried out off the west coast of India during June and December 2004 was utilised to study the transmission loss (TL) variability associated with the upwelling and downwelling processes in this region. During June, the upwelling was confined to the upper 80 m. Downsloping of isotherms below this depth towards the coast and the occurrence of low saline waters indicated the presence of undercurrent. Between the periods of upwelling and downwelling, temperature and salinity in the surface layers increased by 1-2 oC and 2 PSU, respectively, while at the sub-surface levels, the corresponding increase was ~8 oC and ~0.5 PSU. A range-dependent acoustic propagation model based on parabolic equation method was utilised to compute TL for these two periods. The model was run with a source frequency of 3 kHz kept at 5m depth for different environmental setup, viz. propagation along the constant-depth contour, range-independent and range-dependent environment, and upslope/downslope propagation. The computations revealed significant variability in the TL characteristics between the upwelling and downwelling scenario, though bathymetry and geo-acoustic properties were the same. The analysis also stressed the need of range-dependent acoustic propagation model for realistic prediction of transmission loss variability.