| || Chemical radioprotectors
Author : Upadhyay, S. N.;Dwarakanath, B. S.;Ravindranath, T.;Mathew, T.L.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:55(4) ; 2005 ; pp 403-425
Subject : 61 Medical Sciences;57.089 Biomedical Sciences
Keywords : Radioprotectors;Radiation damage;Chemical radioprotectors;Herbal radioprotectors;Radiation injury;WR-2721;Bisbenzimidazole;Hoechst-33258;Analogue Hoechst-33342
Abstract : Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure to radiation. Several physico-chemical and biological factors collectively contribute to the damage caused by radiation and are, therefore, targets for developing radioprotectors. Work on the development of chemicals capable of protecting biological systems from radiation damage was initiated nearly six decades ago with cysteine being the first molecule to be reported. Chemicals capable of scavenging free radicals, inducing oxygen depletion, antioxidants and modulators of immune response have been some of the radioprotectors extensively investigated with limited success. Mechanism of action of some chemical radioprotectors and their combinations have been elucidated, while further understanding is required in many instances. The present review elaborates on structure-activity relationship of some of the chemical radioprotectors, their evaluation, and assessment, limitation, and future prospects.
| || Activities and Achievements of INMAS
Author : Nagaratnam, A.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:40(4) ; 1990 ; pp 325-334
Subject : 61 Medical Sciences
Keywords : Endemic goitre;Organ Imaging centre;DNA repair processes;Chemical radioprotectors;Radiotherapy;Thyroid epidemiology;Radiobiology;Thyrotoxicosis
Abstract : The paper brings out in detail the activities and achievements of INMAS in its formative years and in the post-Mazumdar period. In addition to carrying out investigations on endemic goitre, Brig. Mazumdar pioneered the methodology of the management of thyrotoxicosis by low-split doses of /sup 131/I. In post-Mazumdar period, INMAS saw an all-round growth with the establishment of an advanced non-invasive Organ Imaging Centre and setting up of a TLD-based Personnel Monitoring Centre (for radiating workers in Defence), etc. Studies were undertaken in thyroid epidemiology, radiobiology with emphasis on understanding the basic mechanisms of regulation and control of DNA repair processes, and the development of chemical radioprotectors with particular reference to the role of 2-deoxyglucose as an adjunct to radiotherapy.
| || Normal Tissue Protectors Against Radiation Injury (Review Paper)
Author : Devi, P. Uma;Agrawala, Paban K.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:61(2) ; 2011 ; pp 105-112
Subject : 535.374 Radiation Hazards
Keywords : Radiation protection;chemical radioprotectors;herbal preparations;normal tissue toxicity
Abstract : Radiation damages normal tissues that can adversely affect the success of cancer radiotherapy, safety of nuclear installation workers and military personnel, and public exposed to nuclear accidents. Certain chemicals are able to protect against the harmful effects of radiation. But more than 50 years of research has produced only one approved radioprotective drug, WR-2721 or amifostine. The general utility of WR-2721 is limited by its inherent toxicity and high cost. Efforts to find non-toxic radioprotectors have revealed the promising properties of some medicinal plants. This is an attempt to review the recent publications on radioprotectors and to identify the research needs relevant to developing countries.