| || Effect of drinking normal saline on sweat output and voluntary water intake
Author : Mani, K.V. ;Kundu, S. ;Janweja, R.B.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:13(2) ; 1963 ; pp 225-232
Subject : 612 Physiology;61 Medical Sciences
Keywords : Water ;Plasma ;Tonicity
Abstract : Increase in sweat output as a result of drinking large volumes of water, is confirmed. The view that lowering of plasma tonicity brought about by drinking water is the chief cause of this increase in sweat output, is also confirmed. Presence of extra salt in the body has not caused any significant change in the voluntary intake of water.
| || Effect of water intake on sweat output
Author : Mani, K.V.;Kundu, S.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:11(3) ; 1961 ; pp 176-182
Subject : 57.089 Biomedical Sciences ;612 Physiology
Keywords : Sweat
Abstract : The effect of drinking volumes of water in excess of normal requirement at a given time on sweat output was studied under two conditions of body activity namely marching and standing, and two conditions of exposure namely sun and shade. It was found that (1)drinking large volumes of water causes a significant and appreciable increase in sweat output, of the order of 0.8 gm/kg/hr; and (2) this increase is very nearly the same under all the conditions studied. It is suggested that changes in tonicity of the plasma may be the main cause for this phenomenon. It is also pointed out that this increased sweat output is not a loss to the body.
| || Load Carriage by Infantry Soldier Criteria for Assessment of Physiological and Psychological Fatigue
Author : Srivastava, S.S.;Mani, K.V.;Dasgupta, N.C.;Kundu, S.;Viswanathan, K.R.;Sain, K.;Bhati, J.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:18(2) ; 1968 ; pp 53-60
Subject : 612 Physiology
Keywords : Pulse Recovery Index;Eosinophil;Army
Abstract : Load Carriage by Infantry Soldiers is an important problem concerning the Army. This study attempts to evolve suitable criteria for assessing the physiological and psychological fatigue at the end of a given task in field studies pertaining to load carriage. Fifteen tests, physiological and performance which included assessment of Blood Pressure, Respiration Rate, Pulse Rate, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, Eosinophil Count, Harvard Step Test, Energy expenditure during work, Motor Reaction, Cancellation Test, Target Hitting, and Weight Discrimination were tried. Among the various tests studied, there was a consistently progressive fall in eosinophil count with increasing levels of fatigue. The 'pulse recovery index' which was a measure of the rate of pulse recovery after exercise, was lower with higher levels of fatigue. All the other tests in their present form were found unsuitable as tests of fatigue.
| || Water economy of the body under dry desert conditions
Author : Mani, K.V.;Srivastava, S.S.;Soni, C.M.;Bhati, J.;Kundu, S.;Ray, S.N.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:14(4) ; 1964 ; pp 333-336
Subject : 612 Physiology
Keywords : Water economy;Dry desert
Abstract : A trial was conducted in summer under field conditions to investigate the effect of ingestion of extra salt per day had no effect on the voluntary intake of water, but it caused a slight increase in urine excretion and a decrease in sweat output, the net result being an increase in the retention of water in the body. It was also noted that there was undue overdrinking of water for the first few days of exposure, probably due to psychological reasons.
| || Structure and Properties of Thermomechanically-processed HSLA Steels for Naval Applications
Author : Ghosh, A.;Kundu, S.;Chatterjee, S.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:57(4) ; 2007 ; pp 481-490
Subject : 620.1 Material Science and Technology
Keywords : HSLA steel;Bainitic ferrite;Polygonal ferrite;Toughness;Naval applications;Microstructure
Abstract : Four high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels with varying chemical compositions were forged in two different temperature ranges followed by cooling in various media. Microstructures and mechanical properties of the steels were evaluated. The microstructures obtained in water–quenched low-carbon HSLA steels were lath martensite packet within the pancaked grains. On air or sand cooling predominantly bainitic ferrite or granular bainite structure forms. The strength properties of these steels decreased with decrease in cooling rate and is accompanied by an increase in elongation and impact toughness values. The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of HSLA-100 grade steel was found to be – 40 oC. The impact fracture surface of air cooled HSLA-100 steel showed ductile failure with formation of dimples at 20 oC and at – 20 oC. The fracture mode changed to brittle failure with formation of cleavage and river pattern at – 40 oC and at – 60 oC. The microstructures of the ultra-low carbon HSLA steel show lath ferrite or granular ferrite in water-quenched condition. With slower cooling rate, the volume fraction of lath ferrite decreased with an increase in formation of polygonal ferrite. The maximum strength value obtained in air-cooled condition is achieved due to precipitation of fine microalloying carbides and carbonitrides. Slower cooling rate increases the volume fraction of polygonal ferrite which increases the toughness value.