| || Physiological Research of Defence Interest in India Part II: Studies in Thermal Stress Noise Exposure Hazards Bioclimatology Physical Work Capacity and Effects of Ageing
Author : Ramaswamy, S.S.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:44(3) ; 1994 ; pp 241-249
Subject : 61 Medical Sciences;612 Physiology
Keywords : Noise exposure hazards ;Toxicology;Bioclimatology;Physiology;Thermal stress
Abstract : Scientific evaluation of the caloric requirements of our defence personnel under various operational scenarios has helped rationalise the service ration scale appropriate to each scenario. Some of our troops have often to work under extremely hot-dry or hot-cold environments which are generally known have adverse effect on the human body. Consequently, the nature of heat illness cases among army personnel and the contributing factors, the requirements of sodium and potassium in summer, quantification of the impact of thermal stress on the physical work capacity and mental functions, prediction of endurance time and safe exposure time while working under hot environments, have been extensively studied. Exposure to high noise levels is a hazard during gunfire as well as operation of machinery such as engines of ships. Auditory and non-auditory effects due to exposure, and the measures to minimise noise exposure, have been studied. Durations of safe exposure to different noise levels have been prescribed. Another important area covered is the effect of ageing on physical and capacities. The findings would be useful in the optimal deployment of troops in different tasks. Defence physiologists have also carried out basic research whose results would be handy in the setting of norms and standards for important physiological parameters and for the ergonomic/physiological evaluation of implements and instruments.
| || Physiological Research of Defence Interest in India Part I : Studies in High Altitude Physiology
Author : Ramaswamy, S.S.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:44(3) ; 1994 ; pp 231-239
Subject : 612 Physiology;61 Medical Sciences
Keywords : Toxicology ;Bioclimatology;Thermal stress;High altitude physiology;Physiology
Abstract : Our troops have to operate under a variety of adverse environments including hypoxic, dry cold/wet cold conditions of high altitudes, hot dry/humid conditions in the plains, high noise levels from machinery, engines in ships and aircraft, gunfire, etc. Professor DS Kothari, the first Scientific Adviser, Ministry of Defence, could foresee as early as the late forties that it was only a scientific understanding of the basic physiological mechanisms that would lead to solutions which would ensure the optimal operational efficiency of men under such trying environments. He sowed the seeds of defence physiology as a major discipline in the then Defence Science Organisation, which developed into the Defence Research and Development Organisation. As a result, there have been outstanding contributions by the defence physiologists as well in the direct applications of their work in optimizing the operational efficiency of our defence personnel. This paper reviews the wide spectrum of problems relevant to defence physiology studied over the last four decades, the significant findings, and their practical applications. Part I reviews in detail work on the most pressing problem in our current geopolitical context, viz. high altitude physiology. Part II discusses studies on thermal stress, bioclimatology, noise exposure hazards, physical work capacity, effects of ageing on physical and mental capacities, and toxicology. In addition, the contributions of defence scientists towards the rationalisation of service ration scales, and resource development efforts are dealt with.