| || Microelectromechanical Systems and Microsensors
Author : Kal, Santiram
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:57(3) ; 2007 ; pp 209-224
Subject : 681.586 Sensors
Keywords : Microelectromechanical systems;Actuators;Aerospace applications;Microelectric material;Micromachining;Microsensors;Microstructures;Sensors;Single-crystal silicons
Abstract : A highly promising technology that is set to revolutionise nearly every product category is microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). MEMS specifically are the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate through the utilization of microfabrication technology. Silicon and quartz are now household names to consumers of electronic products, computers and automated appliances. Silicon is the material of microchips or very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits. Quartz, a piezoelectric crystal made of silicon and oxygen atoms, provides stable clock pulses to the chips. These materials are also being used to fabricate micromachines and microelectromechanical structures and systems for a wide variety of applications for sensing and actuation. Extensive research and development work has been going on in the Microelectronics Laboratory, Advanced Technology Centre of IIT Kharagpur on both microelectronics and MEMS technology since last five years. Some of the MEMS-based microsensors develoed are silicon MEMS accelerometers, flow sensors, thermal detectors, pressure sensors, micro-thrusters and quartz MEMS gyro and accelerometers. An overview of micromaching and MEMS technologies developed at IIT Kharagpur along with the development of various silicon and quartz-based microsensors are described in this paper.