| || Study of the reaction of guanidine nitrate from urea and ammonium nitrate using silica gel as catalyst
Author : Sinha, S.K. ;Chaudhuri, B.B. ;Das, P.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:13(1) ; 1963 ; pp 104-108
Subject : 54 Chemistry;543 Analytical Chemistry
Keywords : Ammonium Nitrate;Silica gel ;Catalyst
Abstract : The optimum temperature for the maximum yield of guideline nitrate from urea and ammonium nitrate using Silica gel as catalyst and with a given ratio of urea and ammonium nitrate has been worked out. The kinetics of the reaction leading to the formation of Nh/sub/3 have been studied and from the kinetics of the reaction a probable mechanism for the reaction has been suggested.
| || Recovery of Ammonium Nitrate and reusable Acetic Acid from effluent generated during HMX production
Author : Raut, V. D. ;Khopade, R. S.;Rajopadhye, M. V.;Narasimhan, V. L.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:54(2) ; 2004 ; pp 161-167
Subject : 66 Chemical Technology;623.4 Armaments and Ballistics
Keywords : HMX;Glacial acetic acid;RDX;Ammonium nitrate;Spent liquor;Waste recovery;Effluent treatment
Abstract : Production of HMX on commercial scale is mainly carried out by modified Bachmann process, and acetic acid constitutes major portion of effluent/spent liquor produced during this process. The recovery of glacial acetic acid from this spent liquor is essential to make the process commercially viable besides making it eco-friendly by minimizing the quantity of disposable effluent. The recovery of glacial acetic acid from spent liquor is not advisable by simple distillation since it contains, in addition to acetic acid, a small fraction of nitric acid, traces of RDX, HMX, and undesired nitro compounds. The process normally involves neutralizing the spent mother liquor with liquor ammonia and then distillating the neutralized mother liquor under vacuum to recover dilute acetic acid by counter current solvent extraction, followed by distillation. The process is very lengthy and the energy requirement is also very high, rendering the process economically unviable. Hence, a novel method has been developed on bench-scale to obtain glacial acetic acid directly from the mother liquor after the second ageing process.
| || Waterproofing materials for Ammonium Nitrate
Author : Damse, R.S.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:54(4) ; 2004 ; pp 483-492
Subject : 623.4 Armaments and Ballistics;623 Military Science and Engineering
Keywords : Hygroscopicity;Phase transition;Waterproofing ability;Mineral jelly;Ammonium nitrate;High energy materials;Coating materials
Abstract : This study explores the possibility of overcoming the problem of hygroscopicity of ammonium nitrate by coating the particles with selected waterproofing materials. Gravimetric analysis of the samples of ammonium nitrate coated with eight different waterproofing materials, vis-a-vis, uncoated ammonium nitrate, were conducted at different relative humidity and exposure time. The results indicate that mineral jelly is the promising waterproofing material for ammonium nitrate among the materials tested, viz, calcium stearate, dioctyl phthalate, kaoline, diethyl phthalate, dinitrotoluene, shelac varnish, and beeswax. Attempts were made to confirm the waterproofing ability of mineral jelly to ammonium nitrate using differential thermal analysis and x-ray diffraction patterns as an experimental tool. Suitability of mineral jelly as an additive for the gun propellant was also assessed on the basis of theoretical calculations using THERM program.