| || Probiotics: Microbial Therapy for Health Modulation
Author : Goel, Ajay Kumar ;Dilbaghi, N.;Singh, Lokendra ;Kamboj, Dev Vrat
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:56(4) ; 2006 ; pp 513-529
Subject : 57.089 Biomedical Sciences
Keywords : Prebiotics;Probiotics;Gut microflora;Microbial therapy;Health modulation;Microbial ecosystem;Human health;Gut health
Abstract : The human gastrointestinal tract is a complex ecosystem that harbours a rich and diverse microflora. These microbes live in harmony with the host and exert various beneficial effects on human health by their metabolic activities. However, in our modern life style, frequent and indiscriminate use of antibiotics has disturbed this microbial ecosystem, resulting in occurrence of various bowel diseases. Some live microbial food supplements can re-establish this microbial ecosystem. Such a group of microorganisms, which positively influences the intestinal microbiota by stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria and suppressing the harmful ones, is collectively known as probiotics. These have been consumed in the form of fermented milk products for centuries. However, scientific interest in their use for health maintenance and disease prevention has emerged over the past few years only. Various scientific evidences show that probiotics help to reduce several disorders including diarrhea, inflammatory bowel diseases, urinary tract infections, hypertension, allergies, and cancer. Besides, probiotics exert several other benefits also to human beings and animals. Important issues in the probiotic therapy include selection of appropriate strain, its viability during storage, gut persistence potential and functional properties. Another category involved in gut health is prebiotics. These are non-digestible food ingredients, which beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activity of one or a limited number of beneficial bacteria in the colon. This review paper highlights the major health benefits of probiotic organisms, mechanisms of their action, criteria of selection, enumeration, and safety of their use for human health.
| || Military Malaria in Northeast Region of India
Author : Dhiman, Sunil;Baruah, Indra;Singh, Lokendra
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:60(2) ; 2010 ; pp 213-218
Subject : 57.089 Biomedical Sciences ;Defence Science Journal
Keywords : Malaria;armed forces;paramilitary forces;Plasmodium;Anopheles
Abstract : Malaria has always been a pernicious problem of serious health hazard in the northeast region of India. The problem is worst for military and paramilitary forces deputed in all the states of this part of country. The forces are deployed for a short time generally from non malarious regions and thus become highly vulnerable to acquire the malaria infection. Several potential malaria vectors with very high vectorial capacity and high slide positivity rate in civil population manifold the chances of infection. In the present review, the incidence of malaria in the armed forces and paramilitary forces are discussed in detail and minimal measures for the control of malaria in northeastern region have been suggested.
| || Biological Warfare Agents
Author : Kamboj, Dev Vrat ;Goel, Ajay Kumar;Singh, Lokendra
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:56(4) ; 2006 ; pp 495-506
Subject : 57.089 Biomedical Sciences ;623.459 Chemical Weapons
Keywords : Biological warfare agents;Biological warfare;Weapons of mass destruction;BTWC;Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention;Biodefence;Bacterial agents;Viral agents;Toxins
Abstract : There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW) agents by warring countries against their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginning of the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beings and animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisoners and Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biological warfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because of its drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) in 1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biological agents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In the light of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required about biological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlighting important biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and other protection measures.
| || Microbial degradation of Organic Wastes at Low Temperatures
Author : Ramana, K.V.;Singh, Lokendra
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:50(4) ; 2000 ; pp 371-382
Subject : 579 MicroBiology;57.089 Biomedical Sciences
Keywords : Organic wastes;Organic waste disposal method;Aerobic waste treatment method;Artificial heating;Non conventional energy sources;Polymeric materials;Digester insulation;Anaerobic digesters
Abstract : Microbial degradation of organic wastes mainly comprising animal and human wastes, is drastically reduced at extreme low temperatures. For the biodegradation of these wastes, technological inputs are required from disciplines like microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biology, digester modelling and heat transfer at extreme low temperature climates. Various steps in the process of biodegradation have to be studied to formulate an effective organic waste disposal method. Anaerobic digestion of organic wastes is preferred over aerobic waste treatment method, since it yields biogas as a by-product, which in turn can be utilised for heating the digester contents to increase its efficiency. Furthermore, one of the possibilities that can be explored is the utilisation of high rate anaerobic digesters which maintain temperature by means of artificial heating. It is either met by non-conventional energy sources, such as solar and wind energy, or by expending liquid fuels. In addition, insulation of the digester with polymeric materials and immobilisation of slow growing bacterial population may enhance the digester performance to a great extent. In spite of several developments, inoculum adaptation is considered to be one of the essential steps for low temperature anaerobic digestion to obtain methane as a by-product. With advancements in recombinant DNA technology, it may be possible to increase the efficiency of various microbial population that take part in the anaerobic digestion. However, till date, the options available for low temperature biodegradation are digester insulation, inoculum adaptation, and use of high rate/second-generation digesters.
| || Flow-cytometric Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Spores
Author : Kamboj, D. V.;Agarwal, G. S.;Dwarkanath, B. S.;Adhikari, J. S. ;Alam, S. I. ;Singh, Lokendra
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:56(5) ; 2006 ; pp 769-774
Subject : 57.089 Biomedical Sciences
Keywords : Flow cytometry;Bacillus anthracis;Bacterial spores;FITC;Immunofluorescence;Bioterrorism;Fluorescein Isothiocyanate-labelled antibodies;Fluorescein isothiocyanate
Abstract : Flow-cytometric technique has been established as a powerful tool for detection and identification of microbiological agents. Unambiguous and rapid detection of Bacillus anthracis spores has been reported using immunoglobulin G-fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate against live spores. In addition to the high sensitivity, the present technique could differentiate between spores of closely related species, eg, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis using fluorescence intensity. The technique can be used for detection of live as well as inactivated spores making it more congenial for screening of suspected samples of bioterrorism.
| || Psychrotrophic Hydrolytic Bacteria from Antartica and other low Temperature Habitats
Author : Ramana, K.V.;Singh, Lokendra;Saxena, Nalini
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:50(2) ; 2000 ; pp 177-182
Subject : 57.089 Biomedical Sciences
Keywords : Psychrotrophic hydrolytic bacteria;Amylolytic bacteria;Hydrolysed denatured protein substrate;Monomeric synthetic lipid substrates
Abstract : "Samples of water, soil, lake sediments and blue-green algal mats from Antarctica were processed for enumeration, isolation and screening of psychrotrophic hydrolytic bacteria. Amylolytic bacteria were preponderant (75 per cent) in the blue-green algal mat samples. Protease, lipase, amylase and urease producing bacteria were also isolated from the samples. Biochemical characteristics indicated that the isolates mainly comprised Pseudomonas and Bacillus species. Proteases and lipases of antarctic bacteria strains preferably hydrolysed denatured protein substrate and water soluble monomeric synthetic lipid substrates, respectively. "
| || Photo-induced Structural Changes in Polyolefin-nanoclay Composite
Author : Chauhan, R.S.;Singh, Anand;Shrivastava, Anchal Roy;Singh, Lokendra;Pant, S.C.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:58(6) ; 2008 ; pp 778-784
Subject : 620.1 Material Science and Technology
Keywords : Photodegradation;Polyethylene;Polypropylene;Nanoclay;Composite;Structural changes;Raman spectroscopy;Scanning electron microscopy
Abstract : The morphology of films prepared by melt-blending polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) with and without nanoclay was investigated after exposure to outdoor solar radiations for 45 days utilising many techniques. The Raman spectra revealed decreased intensity for all the characteristic Raman bands for PP and PE. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed formation of hydroxyl/hydroperoxy and carbonyl groups in the exposed samples. The weathered films after 45 days of solar exposure became brittle as indicated by loss in physical properties and the stress-strain curves. The clay-containing films showed higher strength loss after solar exposure. The fractured ends of the exposed films showed flat, smooth, and sharp surfaces, indicative of brittle fracture, compared to the unexposed sample.