| || Hardware in Loop Simulation for Missile Guidance and Control Systems
Author : Prabhakar, M. ;Venkatachalam, G.;Chaudhuri, S.K.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:47(3) ; 1997 ; pp 343-357
Subject : 681.5 Control Systems;681.5.017 Simulation;629.762 Missiles;629.76 Rockets and Missiles
Keywords : Guidance and control system ;Seeker dynamics;Hardware in loop simulation;Tactical missiles;Guided missiles;Missile flight path dynamics
Abstract : The purpose of the guidance law is to determine appropriate missile flight path dynamics to achieve mission objective in an efficient manner based on navigation information. Today, guided missiles which are aerodynamically unstable or non-linear in all or part of the flight envelopes need control systems for stability as well as for steering. Many classical guidance and control laws have been used for tactical missiles with varying degrees of performance, complexity and seeker/sensor requirements. Increased accuracy requirements and more dynamic tactics of modern warfare demand improvement of performance which is a trade-off between sophisticated hardware and more sophisticated software. To avoid increase in cost by hardware sophistication, today's trend is to exploit new theoretical methods and low cost high speed microprocessor techniques. Missile test flights are very expensive. The missile system with its sophisticated software and hardware is not reusable after a test launch. Hardware-in-loop Simulation (HILS) facilities and methodology form a well integrated system aimed at transforming a preliminary guidance and control system design to flight software and hardware with trajectory right from lift-off till its impact. Various guidance and control law studies pertaining to gathering basket and stability margins, pre-flight, post-flight analyses and validation of support systems have been carried out using this methodology. Nearly full spectrum of dynamically accurate six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) model of missile systems has been realised in the HILS scenario. The HILS facility allows interconnection of missile hardware in flight configuration. Pre-flight HILS results have matched fairly well with actual flight trial results. It was possible to detect many hidden defects in the onboard guidance and control software as well as in hardware during HILS. Deficiencies in model, like tail-wag-dog (TWD), flexibility, seeker dynamics and defects in the guidance and control system were demonstrated in HILS. Appropriate design modifications were introduced and tested in record time to reduce the number of expensive flight trials.
| || Guided Missile with an Intelligent Agent
Author : Krishnabrahmam, V.;Bhardwaj, N. ;Swamy, K.N.;Sarma, V.V.S.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:50(1) ; 2000 ; pp 25-30
Subject : 629.762 Missiles;629.7 Aeronautics
Keywords : Guided missiles;Proportional navigational algorithm;Targets;Fly by wire technology;Control loops
Abstract : Guided missiles involve the use of a conventional deviated pursuit course like proportional navigation algorithm and its variants, which is optimal when the speed advantage of the guided missile is very high and the target maneouvering is minimal. Against the present-day aircraft, which employs fly-by-wire technology for high maneouverability and high speed, missiles need to have a much higher speed advantage or to use a combination of artificial intelligence and modern control algorithms. Results of simulation of pursuit and evasion with an autonomous intelligent agent incorporated in the control loop are presented.