| || Rocket Performance of Red Fuming Nitric Acid with Blends of Norbornadiene, Carene and Cardanol
Author : Chhibber, R.;Prabhakaran, C.;Kulkarni, S.G.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:42(3) ; 1992 ; pp 165-171
Subject : 629.76 Rockets and Missiles
Keywords : Fuel blends;Norbornadiene carene blend
Abstract : The fuel blends of nornornadiene and carene (50:50 by weight) and norbornadiene, carene and cardanol (40:40:20 by weight) exhibit synergistic hypergolic ignition with red fuming nitric acid (RFNA) as oxidiser. These fuel blends have been evaluated by theoretical calculations of performance parameters and subsequently verified by static firing in a 10 kg/sub f/ thruster at a chamber pressure of around 20 atm, using RFNA (with 21 per cent N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ by weight) as oxidiser. The theoretical calculations show maximum specific impulse and C*values at the O/F, 3 to be 227.8 s and 1598.7 m/s respectively for the norbornadiene-carene blend. The corresponding values for the norbornadiene, carene and cardanol blend were found to be 226.8 s and 1586.0 m/s respectively at the O/F, 4. For theoretical calculations, the chamber pressure (P/sub c) and the exit pressure (P/sub e/0 were assumed to be 20 and 1 atm, respectively. The static firing of the propellants in a 10 kg thruster exhibited smooth pressure-time curves with the experimental C* values in close agreement with those calculated and the non-deposition of carbon in the nozzle. This indicated low combustion instability and high combustion efficiency under rocket conditions (> 0.9). The fuel blends with their low cost and toxicity and relatively high density can replace G-fuel used in several Indian missiles without impairing the performance.