| || Respiratory Protection Against Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents
Author : Vijayaraghavan, R. ;Singh, Beer;Prasad, G. K.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:58(5) ; 2008 ; pp 686-697
Keywords : CBW;Aerosols;Mechanical filters;Gas filters;Respiratory protection;Biological warfare agents;Chamical warfare agents
Abstract : Chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents pose unavoidable threat, both to soldiers and civilians. Exposure to such deadly agents amidst the CBW agents contaminated environment can be avoided by taking proper protective measures. Respiratory protection is indispensable when the soldiers or civilians are surrounded by such deadly environment as contamination-free air is needed for respiration purposes. In this context, an attempt has been made to review the literature for the past five decades on development of various protective devices for respiratory protection against aerosols, gases, and vapours of CBW agents. This review covers structural, textural, and adsorption properties of materials used in gas filters and mechanical filters for the removal of CBW agents.
| || Biological Warfare Agents
Author : Kamboj, Dev Vrat ;Goel, Ajay Kumar;Singh, Lokendra
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:56(4) ; 2006 ; pp 495-506
Subject : 57.089 Biomedical Sciences ;623.459 Chemical Weapons
Keywords : Biological warfare agents;Biological warfare;Weapons of mass destruction;BTWC;Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention;Biodefence;Bacterial agents;Viral agents;Toxins
Abstract : There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW) agents by warring countries against their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginning of the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beings and animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisoners and Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biological warfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because of its drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) in 1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biological agents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In the light of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required about biological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlighting important biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and other protection measures.
| || Biosensors for Biological Warfare Agent Detection
Author : Pohanka, Miroslav;Skládal, Petr;Kroèa, Michal
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:57(3) ; 2007 ; pp 185-193
Subject : 681.5 Control Systems;681.586 Sensors
Keywords : Biosensors;Biological warfare agents;Electrochemical biosensors;Optical biosensors;Piezoelectric biosensors
Abstract : Biological warfare agents (BWA) such as Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis or butulotoxin represent one of possibilities exploitable by military or terrorists. Rapid detection of BWA is one of the most important presumptions prerequisities for successful defence against them. The detection devices–biosensors–can be divided according to their physicochemical transducers to electrochemical, optical, and piezoelectric groups. A comparison of classical detection methods with biosensors is also given.