| || Impact of Phospho-ELK-1 Expression in Enterocytes in Biodosimetry after Low-dose Irradiation
Author : Osterreicher, J.;Driak, D.;Vilasova, Z.;Vavrova, J.
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:57(6) ; 2007 ; pp 845-851
Subject : 60 Biotechnology;61 Medical Sciences
Keywords : Radiation;Biodosimetry;Phospho-ELK-1;Image analysis;Immunohistrochemistry;Biomarkers
Abstract : Previously the higher phospho-ELK-1 (p-ELK-1) expression in enterocytes 24-96 h after sub-lethal irradiation was measured. Therefore, purpose of this study is to examine in vivo expression of this common ERK1/2 and JNK/SAPK target during the first hours after low-dose irradiation to assess ability of this transcriptional factor as a biodosimetric marker after the single whole-body irradiation. The laboratory rats were randomly divided into 12 groups and irradiated with whole-body gamma radiation dose of 0.25 Gy, 0.5 Gy, and 1.0 Gy. Samples of jejunum were taken 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, and 24 h later, the p-ELK-1 was immunohistochemically detected and then its expression was measured by computer image analysis. A significantly increased expression of p-ELK-1 in enterocytes was measured 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h after 0.5 Gy and 1.0 Gy irradiation, 24 h after all radiation doses, respectively. Peak of p-ELK-1 expression was observed at 0.5 Gy at all time points after irradiation. The detection of p-ELK-1 might be considered as a perspective qualitative in vivo biodosimetric marker for military purposes expressed by proliferative cells 24 h after irradiation with doses from 0.25 Gy to 1.0 Gy.
| || Advances in Mitigation of Injuries from Radiological Terrorism or Nuclear Accidents (Review Paper)
Author : Moulder, John E.;Medhora, Meetha
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:61(2) ; 2011 ; pp 99-104
Subject : 535.374 Radiation Hazards
Keywords : Radiological terrorism;nuclear accident;countermeasures;biodosimetry;acute radiation syndrome
Abstract : A program to deal with the medical consequences of a radiological terrorism incident or a nuclear accident requires three principal components: (i) the technology to rapidly determine the radiation doses received by a large number of people, (ii) methods for alleviating acute hematological radiation injuries, and (iii) approved drugs for mitigation of chronic radiation injuries. Laboratory studies have shown that all these needs can be met theoretically. However, moving from the existing laboratory studies to a deployed program is not easy. The work that still needs to be done is expensive and time-consuming, and the move from the laboratory to the field may also face severe regulatory barriers.
| || Predictive Genomics: A Post-genomic Integrated Approach to Analyse Biological Signatures of Radiation Exposure
Author : Jayapal, Manikandan;Sethu, Swaminathan;Zeegers, Dimphy;Banerjee, Birendranath;Hande, M. Prakash
Source : Defence Science Journal ; Vol:61(2) ; 2011 ; pp 133-137
Subject : 535.374 Radiation Hazards
Keywords : ionising radiation;Biomarkers;genomics;microarray;genomic integration;biodosimetry;predictive genomics;genomic signatures;transcriptomic analysis
Abstract : The ultimate objective of radiation research is to link human diseases with the altered gene expression that underlie them and the exposure type and level that caused them. However, this has remained a daunting task for radiation biologists to indent genomic signatures of radiation exposures. Transcriptomic analysis of the cells can reveal the biochemical or biological mechanisms affected by radiation exposures. Predictive genomics has revolutionised how researchers can study the molecular basis of adverse effects of exposure to ionising radiation. It is expected that the new field will find efficient and high-throughput means to delineate mechanisms of action, risk assessment, identify and understand basic mechanisms that are critical to disease progression, and predict dose levels of radiation exposure. Previously, we have shown that cells responding to environmental toxicants through biological networks that are engaged in the regulation of molecular functions such as DNA repair and oxidative stress. To illustrate radiation genomics as an effective tool in biological dosimetry, an overview has been provided of some of the current radiation genomics landscapes as well as potential future systems to integrate the results of radiation response profiling across multiple biological levels in to a broad consensus picture. Predictive genomics represents a promising approach to high-throughput radiation biodosimetry.